Location: Sugarbeet and Potato ResearchTitle: The effect of cooling and rehydration methods in high moisture meat analogs with pulse proteins-peas, lentils, and faba beans
|KIM, TAEHOON - Texas A&M University|
|RIAZ, MIAN - Texas A&M University|
|AWIKA, JOSEPH - Texas A&M University|
|TEFERRA, TADESSE - Hawassa University|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/28/2021
Publication Date: 3/24/2021
Citation: Kim, T., Riaz, M.N., Awika, J., Teferra, T.F. 2021. The effect of cooling and rehydration methods in high moisture meat analogs with pulse proteins-peas, lentils, and faba beans. Journal of Food Science. 86:1322-1334. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15660.
Interpretive Summary: Pulse proteins (from pea, lentil, or faba bean) can be used to produce a meat-like textured product known as a high moisture meat analog (HMMA). Once processed into HMMA using an extrusion process, the meat analogs are cooled before freezing for storage, and must be thawed and rehydrated before final use. In this study, we measured different cooling methods to maintain textural and color quality attributes of the HMMA. We also studied different rehydration methods after freezing and thawing, again to assess HMMA quality. We learned that cooling the HMMA in a 2% brine solution prior to freezing and boiling after thawing to rehydrate the HMMA are ideal methods to maintain quality. This work will help researchers and product developers understand proper handling methods for HMMA use in plant-based meat analog products.
Technical Abstract: Pulse proteins (PLP) can be ideal alternative-sources that produce a meat-like textured product, known as a high moisture meat analog (HMMA). In this research, each commercial PLP: pea (16%), lentil (16%), and faba-bean (20%) was mixed with pea isolate (63%, 63%, and 59%, respectively) and constant ingredients which are canola oil (6%) and wheat gluten (15%) and texturized to produce HMMA using a twin-screw extruder (TX-52)with a cooling die. Soy concentrate and soy isolate were mixed with the constant ingredients and texturized into an HMMA and used as a control. Before freezing for storage, each sample was cooled by air, water, or a brine solution (2% or 4%) for 10min. Frozen samples were thawed at room temperature (25 °C) for 3 hr and rehydrated by soaking at 25 °C for 2 hr, warm-soaking at 50 °C for 12 hr, or boiling for 2 min. Color moisture content (MC), specific density (SD), water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), and texture were measured. Compared to the control,samples with PLP had less lightness and texture and greater redness, yellowness, MC and WSI. The 2% brine solution used for cooling reduced WSI without textural change compared to other cooling methods. Boiling for rehydration increased lightness while warm-soaking decreased lightness and increased yellowness. In addition, boiling resulted in the least MC, SD, WSI, and WAI following soaking and warm-soaking. Therefore, these PLP can be used as alternative meat sources to soy proteins and a 2% brine solution for cooling and rehydration by boiling are recommended to reduce the WSI.