Submitted to: Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Publication Type: Literature Review
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/14/2021
Publication Date: 7/20/2021
Citation: Dean, L.L. 2021. Peanut protein-processes and applications: A review. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 4:031.
Interpretive Summary: Protein from vegetable sources has increased in importance in human food. Consumers are looking for alternatives to meat and dairy that are more sustainable. Although often classified with tree nuts because of their flavor and applications in spreads, candy and snack foods, peanut are actually a legume. Many other legumes such as beans and peas are currently being exploited as protein sources, peanuts are higher in protein and can be used in similar ways. This review collects information on peanut protein applications and processes from the literature reported in the last 5 years.
Technical Abstract: Peanuts are a source of vegetable protein and interest in applications and uses have increased greatly in the past few years. The use of peanuts as a source of edible oil produces millions of tons of high-protein processing byproduct material that is available for food applications. A review of the literature for the past five years has produced a range of studies for the high protein meal and for protein isolates that adds value to the peanut crop. Food uses include flours in baked goods, meat and dairy substitutes, and extruded snacks. Peanut protein isolates have been used as gels, emulsifiers, salt substitutes, nanoparticles, and bioactive peptides. Issues of using peanut protein include solubility, oxidation, degradation and allergenicity which researchers are working to address. Peanuts have proven to be a valuable source of protein for humans beyond conventional consumption of the whole seed.