|FIDELER MOORE, JENNIFER - North Carolina State University|
|DUVIVIER, RACHEL - North Carolina State University|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/29/2021
Publication Date: 2/7/2022
Publication URL: https://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/7662294
Citation: Fideler Moore, J., Duvivier, R., Johanningsmeier, S.D. 2022. Changes in the free amino acid profile of pickling cucumber during lactic acid fermentation. Journal of Food Science. 87:599-611. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15990.
Interpretive Summary: This study reports changes in the free amino acid profiles of raw, fermented and acidified cucumbers, which may be valuable for understanding the impact of these foods on human health and nutrition. This information is useful for food microbiologists studying the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria during fermentation and/or designing starter cultures and could contribute to the development of novel fermented cucumber pickle products with enhanced nutritional value.
Technical Abstract: Free amino acid (FAA) profiles of fresh, acidified, naturally fermented, and starter culture fermented cucumbers were analyzed by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Fermented cucumbers containedmore total FAA than acidified cucumbers (1,302 ± 102 mg/kg and 635 ± 35 mg/kg, respectively). Total FAA content of fermented cucumber was similar regardless of brine salt levels (2–6% NaCl) and starter culture addition. Glutamine (1491.4 ± 69.3 mg/kg), '-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 269.6 ± 21.4 mg/kg), asparagine (113.0 ± 6.4 mg/kg), and citrulline (110.3 ± 8.5 mg/kg) were the most abundant FAA in fresh pickling cucumber, whereas GABA (181.3 ± 21.5 mg/kg), isoleucine (165.2 ± 11.2 mg/kg), leucine (129.8 ± 10.9 mg/kg), and lysine (110.9 ± 5.0 mg/kg) were the most abundant in fermented cucumber. GABA and ornithine were produced during fermentation, indicating glutamate decarboxylase and arginine deiminase activities. Notably, ornithine was significantly higher in natural (63.3±31.5 mg/kg) versus starter culture fermented cucumbers (3.0±0.7mg/kg). This new information on FAA composition of fresh and fermented pickling cucumbers shows the impact of fermentation conditions on cucumber amino acid profiles while providing insight for manipulating fermentations for health promotion and consumer acceptance.