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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Pullman, Washington » WHGQ » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #384648

Research Project: Characterization of Quality and Marketability of Western U.S. Wheat Genotypes and Phenotypes

Location: Wheat Health, Genetics, and Quality Research

Title: Effects of the functional Gpc-B1 allele on soft durum wheat grain, milling, flour, dough and breadmaking quality

item KISZONAS, ALECIA - Washington State University
item IBBA, M. ITRIA - International Maize & Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
item Boehm Jr, Jeffrey
item Morris, Craig

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/16/2021
Publication Date: 11/9/2021
Citation: Kiszonas, A.M., Ibba, M., Boehm Jr, J.D., Morris, C.F. 2021. Effects of the functional Gpc-B1 allele on soft durum wheat grain, milling, flour, dough and breadmaking quality. Cereal Chemistry. 98:1250-1258.

Interpretive Summary: Protein content is an essential quality-determining factor in wheat grain and flour utilization. Protein content is highly influenced by weather, soil nutrients, and grower management. Nevertheless, protein content can be increased through phenotypic selection among wheat breeding lines and germplasm. However, few major protein-controlling loci have been identified. In this paper, we examine the effects of the introgression of the functional allele of Gpc-B1 into soft durum wheat grain, milling, flour, dough and breadmaking quality. Overall, there were some advantages to the introgression of the functional dicoccoides Gpc-B1 allele into soft durum. Grain and flour protein were increased, dough mixing strength was increased, and bread loaf volumes increased. However, test weight decreased and flour ash increased. This introgression was not sufficient to elevate dough and breadmaking quality to a level commensurate with high quality bread wheats, but it did make a consistent and positive contribution.

Technical Abstract: Background and objectives: Utilization of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) can be enhanced by increasing grain and flour protein content. One strategy to increase protein content is by introducing the functional Gpc-B1 allele from wild emmer (Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides). Findings: Introduction of the functional Gpc-B1 allele increased grain and flour protein by 17 g kg-1, increased dough strength as evidenced by SDS sedimentation volume and Mixograph dough mixing parameters and increased straight-dough pan bread volume. When grown under arid conditions, high protein (151 g kg-1) samples had decreased loaf volumes indicative of inelastic doughs. The functional Gpc-B1 allele was associated with decreased test weight, a small increase in SKCS hardness, and a modest increase in flour ash; otherwise, milling performance was not affected. Conclusions: Introgression of the Gpc-B1 functional allele from dicoccoides into durum wheat can improve dough strength and breadmaking quality. The effect tends to be consistent over environments but overall, Gpc-B1 made only a modest improvement in durum wheat breadmaking quality. Further studies with concomitant selection at other loci are needed to see the effects of Gpc-B1 among elite germplasm. Significance and novelty: Durum wheat production and consumption will increase as bread quality improves. The functional Gpc-B1 allele contributed to improved breadmaking quality. The present report is the first to examine the effect of this allele on breadmaking in durum wheat.