|LITMAN, JESSICA - Natural History Museum Neuchatel|
|FATERYGA, ALEXANDER - National Academy Of Sciences Of Ukraine|
|AUBERT, MATTHIEU - Consultant|
|PROSHCHALYKIN, MAXIM - Russian Academy Of Sciences|
|DIVELEC, ROMAIN - Consultant|
|BURROWS, SKYLER - Utah State University|
|PRAZ, CHRISTOPHE - Natural History Museum Neuchatel|
Submitted to: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/13/2021
Publication Date: 9/29/2021
Citation: Litman, J.R., Fateryga, A.V., Griswold, T.L., Aubert, M., Proshchalykin, M.Y., Divelec, R.L., Burrows, S., Praz, C.J. 2021. Paraphyly and low levels of genetic divergence in morphologically distinct taxa: Revision of the Pseudoanthidium scapulare complex of carder bees (Apoidea: Megachilidae: Anthidiini). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 195(4):1287-1337. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlab062.
Interpretive Summary: The carder bee genus Pseudoanthidium includes a group of species called the “scapulare group” that have long been a confused tangle of names and species concepts. The number of species in the group has not been known and where they are found has been unclear. This confusion prevents conservation of these bees in their native habitats. Further, one of these carder bees was recently found in the United States and appears to be established and increasing in range. This opens the possibility that other species in the complex could invade the United States. So, it is important to be able to identify the species in this complex in both their native lands and in exotic places. This research used physical characteristics and genetic information to determine that there are ten species in the scapulare complex including two species new to science. The species complex is now known to be native from southern Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East to Central Asia, China, and Pakistan. A key to distinguish all species is provided. For each species characteristics to recognize it are given and a map of its distribution is provided.
Technical Abstract: The Palaearctic complex of anthidiine bees closely related to Pseudoanthidium scapulare (Latreille, 1809) has long been a source of unresolved taxonomic and systematic issues. Until now, the number of species in the complex and their geographical distributions were largely unclear, thus complicating the compilation of accurate species checklists and hindering conservation efforts. In order to address these issues, we used morphology and mitochondrial CO1 sequences, combined with a thorough examination of the relevant literature and type material, to delimit species within this complex, assign names to species and clarify geographical ranges. We also sequenced a set of ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) to further investigate relationships among certain closely-related taxa that were otherwise difficult to characterize. The results of our study reveal the presence of ten species in this complex, including a previously overlooked species for western continental Europe. A complete diagnosis of the males and females of each species is provided, as are maps detailing the geographic distributions of each. An illustrated identification key to the males and females of each species is presented. Two new species are described, Pseudoanthidium kaspareki sp. nov. and P. rozeni sp. nov. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: Anthidium reptans Eversmann, 1852, Anthidium nanum Mocsáry, 1880, Anthidium floripetum Eversmann, 1852, Anthidium frontale Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1841, Anthidium karakalense Popov, 1952 and Anthidium eversmanni Radoszkowski, 1886. Previously unpublished lectotype designations are published here for Anthidium sinuatum Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1841 and Anthidium tenellum Mocsáry, 1880. A neotype is designated for Anthidium stigmaticorne Dours, 1873.