Location: Poisonous Plant ResearchTitle: Plant and Animal Toxins. In: Hayes, A.W., Kobets, T. editors. Hayes' Principles and Methods of Toxicology. 7th edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
|KING, GLENN - University Of Queensland|
|WHITE, JULIAN - Women'S And Children's Hospital|
|PEARSON, LEANNE - University Of Newcastle|
|NEILAN, BRETT - University Of Newcastle|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/24/2021
Publication Date: 7/3/2023
Citation: Welch, K.D., King, G., White, J., Pearson, L., Neilan, B., Cook, D. 2023. Plant and Animal Toxins. In: Hayes, A.W., Kobets, T. editors. Hayes' Principles and Methods of Toxicology. 7th edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 755-830. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003104391.
Interpretive Summary: Nature is beautiful, but is it always safe? Toxins, which by definition are produced by living organisms, may be found in all taxonomic kingdoms including plants, algae, fungi, bacteria, and various members of the animal kingdom. This chapter will present the toxic hazards from plants, cyanobacteria, mushrooms, and animals.
Technical Abstract: Toxins, commonly referred to as “natural toxins”, are unique in that they exist in the organism’s structure yet, with rare exceptions, are not harmful to that host. They are also special in that individuals potentially affected by these natural toxins may become exposed by consuming the toxin-bearing material, such as when consuming poisonous plants or toxic marine animals; by receiving skin contact and producing durable irritation or traumatic injury, such as occurs from poison ivy or blistering agents in plants or from cactus spines penetrating body surfaces; or harmful effects can result from venomous animals inflicting an envenomation (local or systemic adverse effects caused by venom) through inoculation of venom by stings, bites, or other delivery systems. In many cases, these delivery systems are specialized to cause reactions on contact, embed materials that are then released into the victim’s biological tissues, or result in direct administration into the victim’s body tissues and fluids. As in all areas of toxicology, the amount of exposure, or dose delivered to the victim, largely determines the resulting clinical effect.