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ARS Home » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #381709

Research Project: Japanese Encephalitis Virus Prevention and Mitigation Strategies

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Title: Epidemiology of infectious diseases

Author
item CERNICCHIARO, NATALIA - Kansas State University
item OLIVEIRA, ANA R.S. - Kansas State University
item Cohnstaedt, Lee

Submitted to: Veterinary Microbiology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/17/2021
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Interpretive Summary not required in accordance with ARS-115 Publications P & P 152.1 v.5 (10/19/2019)chapter 5 page 31 Matrix for Data Entry Determinations. Kmm

Technical Abstract: Infectious diseases remain the most significant and preventable health issue worldwide despite advances in health care, research, and detection. The rapid expansion and unpredictability of exotic and emerging pathogens can cause massive political, social, and economic devastation, as demonstrated most recently during the 2019-2021 COVID-19 pandemic. Infectious diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi, that impair normal functioning and are manifested by clinical signs. These diseases, which can typically spread from one individual to another, are considered highly dynamic, non-linear systems as they do not respond in proportion to changes in the population. Within these systems, populations are heterogeneous, comprised of susceptible and infectious individuals, and for transmission of the infectious agent to occur, there must be an opportunity for these two types of individuals to have contact, directly or indirectly. This chapter defines the key terminology and outlines modeling approaches to describe the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Uniform terminology enhances communication and speeds decision-making; therefore it is crucial to understand the lexicon of epidemiology and infectious diseases allowing for better acceptance and appreciation of disease outcomes. Similarly, effective and clear communication can help avoid fear, insecurity, and confusion during infectious disease outbreaks.