Location: Produce Safety and Microbiology ResearchTitle: Enhanced detection of major pathogens and toxins in poultry and livestock with zoonotic risks using nanomaterials-based diagnostics
Submitted to: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/11/2021
Publication Date: 6/7/2021
Citation: Manhas, P.K., Quintela, I.A., Wu, V.C. 2021. Enhanced detection of major pathogens and toxins in poultry and livestock with zoonotic risks using nanomaterials-based diagnostics. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 8:673718. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.673718.
Interpretive Summary: Nanotechnology has become popular due to its applications in healthcare and agriculture, including food safety and veterinary science. Currently, it can be used for the prevention, detection, and potential treatment of diseases commonly caused by pathogens in foods and animal hosts. Since diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms and toxins cost the poultry and livestock industries enormous amounts of money annually, its rapid detection is of utmost importance. This mini-review looks into the different types of nanomaterials along with the latest techniques in terms of efficacy in detecting the prevalence of pathogens and toxins in poultry and livestock with zoonotic risks. The major advantages and disadvantages of different nanomaterials along with various detection methods and their risks are presented by looking at sensitivity, specificity, and safety profiles.
Technical Abstract: Nanotechnology has gained prominence over recent years in multiple research and application fields, including infectious diseases in healthcare, agriculture, and veterinary science. It remains an attractive and viable option for the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of diseases in their animal hosts and humans. The apparent efficacy is due to the unique physiochemical properties and biocompatibility of nanomaterials. With the persistence of pathogens and toxins in the poultry and cattle industries, rapid detection is of utmost importance. This mini-review explores several types of nanomaterials and analyzes the major advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic methods and modifications introduced to the nanomaterials, paying close attention to sensitivity, specificity, costs, and host toxicity. Though there are many promising diagnostic models and techniques on disease-causing agents, many have not achieved balanced sensitivity and specificity with reproducibility, cost-effectiveness, and a reduction in host toxicity. This analysis presents a comprehensive review and recommendations that can assist when designing diagnostic models and real tools for novel technology focusing on rapid pathogens detection.