|LAURORA, ALICE - Copenhagen University|
|BINGHAM, JON-PAUL - University Of Hawaii|
|POOJARY, MAHESHA - Copenhagen University|
|HO, KACIE K.H.Y. - University Of Hawaii|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/17/2021
Publication Date: 5/21/2021
Citation: Laurora, A., Bingham, J., Poojary, M.M., Wall, M.M., Ho, K. 2021. Varietal differences in carotenoid composition and their bioaccessibility from papaya cultivars in Hawaii. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 101. Article 103984. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2021.103984.
Interpretive Summary: Papaya fruits are rich sources of carotenoids. Several papaya cultivars are grown in Hawaii, including yellow-fleshed and red-fleshed varieties. Papayas harvested from different locations throughout the Hawaiian Islands were analyzed for their mineral and carotenoid contents. Also, the bioaccessibility of carotenoids were compared using an in-vitro digestion model. Varietal and geographical differences were evident in both carotenoid content and their bioaccessibility. The maximum levels of ß-carotene and ß-cryptoxanthin were found in the Rainbow papaya cultivar, while the Sunset cultivar contained the highest amount of lycopene. The highest bioaccessibility across all varieties was found for ß-carotene, followed by ß-cryptoxanthin and lycopene.
Technical Abstract: Papaya (C. papaya) is a rich source of bioactive compounds. However, fruit bioactive content varies greatly depending on factors such as the variety and growing location. In this study, three yellow-fleshed papaya cultivars (La'ie Gold, Rainbow, Kapoho Solo) and two red-fleshed cultivars (Sunset and Sunrise) were harvested from different locations throughout the Hawaiian Islands and analyzed for their mineral and carotenoid content using ICP-MS and HPLC, respectively. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids across papaya cultivars were compared using an in-vitro digestion model. Yellow-fleshed papayas contained two major carotenoids, including ß-carotene and ß-cryptoxanthin. In addition to these two carotenoids, red-fleshed papayas also contained high lycopene levels. Varietal and geographical differences were evident in both carotenoid content and their bioaccessibility. ß-Cryptoxanthin was the main carotenoid among yellow-fleshed cultivars Laie Gold, Rainbow and Kapoho Solo (242.9-739.5 µg/100 g), followed by ß-carotene (152.4-331.0 µg/100 g). The red-fleshed varieties Sunset and Sunrise contained 1089.6-1570.4 µg lycopene /100 g. Papayas (100 g) contained 6% and 8% of the dietary reference intake (DRI) for Cu and Mg, respectively, but less than 3% of the DRI for other minerals. The highest bioaccessibility across all varieties was found for ß-carotene (1.7% to 20.5%), followed by ß-cryptoxanthin (1.1% to 11.7%). Among yellow-fleshed papayas total carotenoid bioaccessibility was highest in the Rainbow variety from Kea'au and Kapoho farms. Bioaccessibility of lycopene from red-fleshed papayas ranged from 1.5 to 11.4%. Altogether, these findings suggest that not only variety, but also different growing location alter the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in papaya.