Submitted to: Insecta Mundi
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/30/2021
Publication Date: 5/28/2021
Citation: Lagos-Kutz, D.M., Hartman, G.L. 2021. Survivorship of soybean aphid biotypes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on winter hosts, common and glossy buckthorn. Insecta Mundi. 0870:1-8.
Interpretive Summary: The soybean aphid is an invasive species that was first reported in the United States in 2000. The soybean aphid is from Asia and overwinters on hosts other than soybean. One of these hosts is known as common buckthorn which is also an invasive species from Asia that has been in the United States for many decades. The soybean aphid, since surviving over 20 years, has been controlled somewhat through the discovery and deployment of soybean aphid resistance genes. However, the aphid has been able to overcome these soybean resistance genes and the aphids have been classified as biotypes one to four depending on which soybean genes are overcome. To date there is no information about how the four described soybean aphid biotypes survive on their winter hosts, common buckthorn and glossy buckthorn. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of the soybean biotypes maintained on the two hosts under laboratory conditions. On these winter hosts, all the soybean aphid biotypes and their different morphs (life cycle) were found. This is the first report showing the different morph stages of the soybean aphid on glossy buckthorn. In general, the four biotypes preferred the common buckthorn, but both overwintering hosts allow for overwintering survival. This is important information for scientists studying invasive insects and their life cycles. This information could have implications for soybean growers in the northern United States that live near locations where these overwintering hosts reside.
Technical Abstract: The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., both in Asia where it is native, and in the USA where it is adventive. The rapid spread and establishment of the soybean aphid in the USA since its discovery in 2000 was successful because of extensive soybean production in the Midwest and the wide distribution of common buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica (L.), its preferred primary winter host. The survivorship of four soybean aphid biotypes on common and glossy buckthorn, Frangula alnus Mill., were compared. Our study showed that nymph oviparae of soybean aphid biotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 reached adulthood and produced eggs on glossy buckthorn. When comparing morphs between the hosts, greater numbers were recorded on common than glossy buckthorn, with one exception where the number of eggs per bud for soybean aphid biotype 2 was not different between the hosts. We found for the first-time soybean aphid biotypes 2 and 3 apterous males produced on common and glossy buckthorn. Morphological descriptions of live and mounted alate and apterous males are presented.