Location: Virus and Prion ResearchTitle: Transmission of the atypical/nor98 scrapie agent to suffolk sheep with VRQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARQ, and ARQ/ARR genotypes
|MAMMADOVA, JAJIBA - Orise Fellow|
|BENESTAD, SYLVIE - Norwegian Veterinary Institute|
|MOORE, SARA JO - Orise Fellow|
Submitted to: PLOS ONE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/21/2021
Publication Date: 2/11/2021
Citation: Cassmann, E.D., Mammadova, J., Benestad, S., Moore, S., Greenlee, J.J. 2021. Transmission of the atypical/nor98 scrapie agent to suffolk sheep with VRQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARQ, and ARQ/ARR genotypes. PLoS ONE. 16(2). Article e0246503. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246503.
Interpretive Summary: Atypical scrapie is a prion disease that affects sheep. Unlike classical scrapie, atypical scrapie is thought to occur spontaneously, and it is unlikely to transmit between sheep under natural conditions. Another notable distinction between classical and atypical scrapie is the prion protein genotype of afflicted sheep and the locations in the brain where misfolded prions accumulate. Atypical scrapie generally occurs in sheep that are resistant to classical scrapie. Misfolded prions are predominantly found in the cerebellum for atypical scrapie and not in the brainstem as seen with classical scrapie. Atypical scrapie is a relevant disease because of its potential association with other prion diseases. Some research has shown that the atypical scrapie agent can undergo a transformation of disease forms that makes it appear like classical scrapie or classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). Therefore, atypical scrapie is thought to be a possible source for these prion diseases. We investigated the transmission of the atypical scrapie agent to sheep with three different prion protein genotypes. A diagnosis of atypical scrapie was made in all three genotypes of sheep. Misfolded prion protein was detected earliest in the cerebellum and the retina. This is the first report describing the early accumulation of misfolded prions in the retina of sheep with atypical scrapie. Understanding where misfolded prions accumulate in cases of atypical scrapie can lead to better detection earlier in the disease. Furthermore, the materials derived from this experiment will aid in investigating origins of other prion diseases.
Technical Abstract: Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that occurs in sheep. Atypical/Nor98 scrapie occurs in sheep with that tend to be resistant to classical scrapie and it is thought to occur spontaneously. The purpose of this study was to test the transmission of the Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent in three genotypes of Suffolk sheep and characterize the distribution of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Ten sheep were intracranially inoculated with brain homogenate from a sheep with Atypical/Nor98 scrapie. All sheep with the ARQ/ARQ and ARQ/ARR genotypes developed Atypical/Nor98 scrapie confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and one (1/3) sheep with the VRQ/ARQ genotype had detectable PrPSc consistent with Atypical/Nor98 scrapie at the experimental endpoint of 8 years. Sheep with mild early accumulations of PrPSc in the cerebellum had concomitant retinal PrPSc. Accordingly, large amounts of retinal PrPSc were identified in clinically affected sheep and sheep with dense accumulations of PrPSc in the cerebellum.