Location: Food Components and Health LaboratoryTitle: Consumption of high-oleic soybean oil improves lipid and lipoprotein profile in humans compared to a palm oil blend: a randomized controlled trial
Submitted to: Lipids
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/8/2021
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Partial hydrogenation of soybean oil became a popular means to replace a portion of the oxidatively unstable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in oils with the more stable trans fatty acids. The partial hydrogenation process improves shelf-stability and provides cost-effective functionality for some food applications (for instance frying and baking); however, consumption of trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) increases LDL cholesterol, increasing risk for coronary heart disease. An alternative approach to replacing PHOs with saturated fatty acids, while still providing stability and functionality, is to increase the MUFA and decrease the PUFA composition of vegetable oils. The present randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine how consumption of highly controlled diets containing high-oleic soybean oil compared to palm oil and palm oil blends, with similar functional properties, modifies LDL cholesterol and other risk factors and biomarkers of coronary heart disease. A triple-blind, crossover, randomized controlled trial was conducted in humans (n=60) with 4 highly-controlled diets containing 1) high oleic soybean oil (HOSBO), 2) 80:20 blend of HOSBO and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (HOSBO+FHSBO), 3) soybean oil (SBO), and 4) 50:50 blend of palm oil and palm kernel oil (PO). Diets containing HOSBO and HOSBO+FHSBO beneficially affect lipid and lipoprotein profiles (i.e., LDL cholesterol) associated with reduced coronary heart disease risk compared to a diet containing a PO blend. Beyond lipids and lipoproteins, these diets have minimal or no effect on markers of inflammation, lipid oxidation, hemostatic factors, blood pressure and body composition. HOSBO and HOSBO+FHSBO are healthful options, as alternatives for saturated fats for the replacement of PHO, that provide functionality for different food applications.
Technical Abstract: Partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) have been removed from the food supply due to their adverse effects on risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). High-oleic soybean oils (HOSBO) are alternatives that provide functionality for different food applications. The objective of this study was to determine how consumption of diets containing HOSBO compared to other alternative oils, with similar functional properties, modifies LDL cholesterol (LDLc) and other risk factors and biomarkers of CHD. A triple-blind, crossover, randomized controlled trial was conducted in humans (n=60) with 4 highly-controlled diets containing 1) HOSBO, 2) 80:20 blend of HOSBO and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (HOSBO+FHSBO), 3) SBO (soybean oil), and 4) 50:50 blend of palm oil and palm kernel oil (PO). After 29 d of feeding, lipids/lipoproteins, blood pressure, body composition, and markers of inflammation, oxidation, and hemostasis were measured. LDLc, apolipoprotein B (apoB), NonHDL-cholesterol, ratios of total cholesterol-to-LDLc and LDLc-to-HDL cholesterol (HDLc), and LDL particles number and size were lower after HOSBO and HOSBO+FHSBO compared to PO (overall treatment P<0.001, specific comparisons P<0.05). There were no differences in atherogenic markers when comparing HOSBO+FHSBO with HOSBO. LDLc and apoB were higher after HOSBO compared to SBO (P<0.05). PO increased HDLc (P<0.001) and apolipoprotein AI (P<0.03) compared to HOSBO and HOSBO+FHSBO. With the exception of lipid hydroperoxides, dietary treatments did not affect other CHD markers. HOSBO, and blends thereof, is a PHO replacement that results in more favorable lipid/lipoprotein profiles compared to PO (an alternative fat with similar functional properties), while providing food functionality and shelf-stability.