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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Florence, South Carolina » Coastal Plain Soil, Water and Plant Conservation Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #378923

Research Project: Improvement of Soil Management Practices and Manure Treatment/Handling Systems of the Southern Coastal Plain

Location: Coastal Plain Soil, Water and Plant Conservation Research

Title: Use of Anammox Brocadia Caroliniensis for treatment of wastewater in space

item Vanotti, Matias

Submitted to: Symposium Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/13/2019
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: In the USA, a novel anammox bacterium strain was discovered (Candidatus Brocadia caroliniensis) that oxidizes ammo nium and releases di-nitrogen (N2) gas under anaerobic conditions. The objectives of this keynote talk are to highlight the major breakthroughs in the research process over the last 16 years that lead to the selection of anammox Brocadia caroliniensis for treatment of space mission wastewater. These breakthroughs include: 1. Isolation of the 1st American anammox; 2. Long term preservation via lyophilization; and 3. Use of anammox Brocadia caroliniensis in single tank deammonification. This anammox bacterium was isolated from livestock manure sludge and is acclimated to high ammonia environments. It can be preserved long-term via sub-zero freezing and lyophilization and reactivated rapidly to facilitate plant start-up. It can be immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel carriers to facilitate biomass retention inside the reactor. Brocadia caroliniensis was also effective to treat high-ammonia digested wastewater from swine effluents using deammonification pathway in a single-tank. Wastewater reuse and recycling on the International Space Station (ISS) is an area of growing importance as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins planning long-duration space missions to the moon and Mars that will accommodate large crews. The ability to be able to rapidly start and shutdown a biological wastewater treatment system is one of major hurdles that must be overcome to successfully implement such a strategy, especially after hibernation during long periods of quiescent operation in space. Currently, physical/chemical wastewater treatment techniques are utilized in space, consisting of urine processor assembly and water processor assembly. Biological wastewater treatment could have a high economic significance in space exploration due to its lower energy and consumables cost when compared with physical/chemical systems. Recent published work using Brocadia caroliniensis shows that the anammox process could be effective to treat space wastewater and provide rapid and reliable startup of biological wastewater treatment systems in space.