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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BARC) » Beltsville Agricultural Research Center » National Germplasm Resources Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #378073

Research Project: Plant Genetic Resource Acquisition, Conservation, International Exchange, and Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Support for the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System

Location: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory

Title: Phytosanitary and regulatory issues in the movement of plant genetic resources

item Williams, Karen
item Kinard, Gary

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/26/2021
Publication Date: 4/30/2021
Citation: Williams, K.A., Kinard, G.R. 2021. Phytosanitary and regulatory issues in the movement of plant genetic resources. Book Chapter.

Interpretive Summary: Phytosanitary and regulatory issues siginificantly affect the national and international movement of material used to propagate plants(germplasm). The goal of regulations is to ensure the safe movement of plants and plant products for trade, commerce, and research, while also protecting native agricultural production and ecosystems. This chapter provides an overview of the regulatory issues in the importation of plant germplasm to the U.S., and exportation from it. The content includes links to resources that assist with understanding regulatory requirements and to obtaining inspections and permits associated with plant germplasm imports and exports.

Technical Abstract: Introduction of exotic (non-native) plants has played a vital role in agricultural and horticultural development in every country in the world. It remains essential to import new plant material for plant breeding and research, enhancement of collections in plant genebanks, and other purposes. Regulating imported plant material minimizes the risks of also introducing species that may be harmful to agriculture, forestry, industry or the natural environment. Exotic species designated as plant pests may cause or transmit diseases, displace native species, and diminish the economic or aesthetic value of a product or the environment. They may include insects and other arthropods, microorganisms, and other plants. Dutch elm fungus, chestnut blight fungus, citrus canker bacterium, European corn and Emerald Ash borers, Japanese beetle, brown marmorated stink bug, fire ant, purple loosestrife and cheatgrass are examples of pests that have caused severe damage in the U.S. after being introduced and becoming established. Conversely, grape phylloxera is an insect that originated in North America and was spread with plant material to become a threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide.