Location: Crop Genetics ResearchTitle: Genetic evaluation of the brown fiber phenotype for Gossypium arboreum accession PI 615733
Submitted to: Plant Breeding
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/2/2020
Publication Date: 4/20/2021
Citation: Erpelding, J.E. 2021. Genetic evaluation of the brown fiber phenotype for Gossypium arboreum accession PI 615733. Plant Breeding. 140:367-374. https://doi.org/10.1111/pbr.12890.
Interpretive Summary: Cotton is a major source of fiber for the textile industry and the United States is the leading exporter of cotton fiber. Nearly all cotton produced worldwide has white fiber, which requires bleaching and dyeing to produce colored fabrics. Many of the synthetic dyes are toxic to humans and contaminated waste water is a source of pollution. Cotton varieties that produce colored fiber are available in the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection and the cotton fiber from these varieties do not need to be bleached or dyed, which would reduce the costs associated with fabric production. These varieties however produced poorer quality fiber and showed lower fiber yields; therefore, identifying the genes controlling fiber coloration is important for the breeding of improved varieties. A brown fibered variety (PI 615733) was identified from the Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum) germplasm collection and crossed with three white fibered varieties (PI 529712, PI 529729, and PI 615740) from this collection. Analysis of fiber color in the resulting offspring showed that a single dominant gene controlled brown fiber coloration. The populations and results from this study can be used in future research to evaluate the genetic diversity for the brown fiber trait in the germplasm collection, to identify the genes controlling cotton fiber color, and to characterize the genetic pathway controlling fiber coloration. This information could then be used to develop improved cotton varieties with new fiber colors and naturally colored yarns for textile production.
Technical Abstract: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a major source of fiber for the textile industry and naturally colored cotton fiber does not require the use of synthetic dyes making it an eco-friendly option for textile production. Colored cotton varieties are however associated with lower fiber yields and reduced fiber quality. A greater understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying fiber coloration will aid in the development of improved varieties. The brown fibered G. arboreum accession PI 615733 was identified from the United States Department of Agriculture cotton germplasm collection and crossed with three white fibered accessions PI 529712, PI 529729, and PI 615740 to develop F2 populations for genetic evaluation. Population data indicated a single dominant gene conferred the brown fiber phenotype. Variation in the intensity of fiber coloration was observed within populations. These data failed to support an incomplete dominance model suggesting genetic modifiers may also play a role in fiber coloration. Additionally, chimeras were frequently observed in the PI 615733 × PI 615740 population. These data will be useful to further characterize the brown fiber trait.