|WOYESSA, MEZENE - Wollega University|
|GUMI, BALAKO - Addis Ababa University|
|AYANA, DINKA - Addis Ababa University|
|MAMO, GEZAHEGN - Addis Ababa University|
Submitted to: American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/10/2020
Publication Date: 12/24/2020
Citation: Woyessa, M., Agga, G.E., Gumi, B., Ayana, D., Mamo, G. 2020. Antibiotic use in poultry production in selected districts of east Showa zone, central Ethiopia: from antibiotic stewardship perspective. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research. 15(3):101-111.
Interpretive Summary: Antibiotic resistance is recognized by international organizations as a public health crisis. It is driven by the use of antibiotics in humans, animals and crop agriculture. More than half of antibiotic use in humans are unnecessary mainly being prescribed for viral diseases. In animals, antibiotics are used for growth promotion and routinely for the control of infections. Although in the United States and most developed countries such uses are limited only to antibiotics that are not important for human medicine, antibiotics are still widely used in developing countries without limitation. To reduce the global spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria through travel and food, judicious uses of antibiotics are recommended by the World Health Organization. A survey was conducted to understand the types, routes and purposes of antibiotic use in poultry farms in Ethiopia. Results indicate that antibiotics including those that are critically important for humans and priority antibiotics for risk mitigation were commonly used. About one-third of the farmers used antibiotics for growth promotion. Majority of the farmers used antibiotics for viral and protozoan infections which normally do not require antibiotic therapy. Over one-third of the farmers obtained antibiotics over the counter without prescription, mainly from pharmacies. However, one in five farmers also mentioned obtaining antibiotics from open markets. Two-thirds of the farmers administer the antibiotics by themselves without veterinarian supervision. In general, this study highlighted the widespread practices of non-judicious use of antibiotics in the poultry production. Results of this study will be very useful to develop antibiotic stewardship to slow the spread of antibiotic resistant infections, to ensure the safety of poultry products, and to preserve the effectiveness of available antibiotics for the treatment of infections both in humans and animals.
Technical Abstract: Misuse and overuse of antibiotics is a primary contributor for the development of antibiotic resistance. The World Health Organization estimates that in the past decade the number of deaths attributed to antibiotic resistant bacteria exceeded the combined number of deaths due to influenza, human immunodeficiency virus and traffic accidents. Antibiotic stewardship plays a major role for the control of antibiotic resistance. A questionnaire survey through a face-to-face interview was administered to 388 poultry farmers and veterinarians. All farms used one or more antibiotics and administered them mainly through feed or water. Tetracycline (100% of farms) and sulfadiazine + trimethoprim (94.1%), fluroquinolones (41.5%) and cloxacillin + ampicillin (29.1%) were the most frequently used drugs. Antibiotics were used for disease treatment (100% of farms), for disease prevention (56%) or for growth promotion (32.2%). Diseases for which antibiotics were frequently used include Newcastle disease (100% of farms), Gumboro disease (54.4%), coccidiosis (53.4%), Marek’s disease (49.7%), foul typhoid (45.9%) and foul pox (39.2%). Majority (61.9%) of the farms obtained antibiotics by prescription from veterinarian, over the counter (OTC) as self-prescription (32.2%) or as recommended by friends with prior experience (11.9%). Veterinary pharmacies (100% of farms), veterinary clinic (51.0%), human pharmacies (26.8%) and open market (16.2%) were the sources of antibiotics. Although on 37.9% of farms antibiotics were administered by veterinary professionals, majority of the farms administered antibiotics by themselves based on the drug labels or as directed by a prescriber or pharmacist. In conclusion, we identified antibiotic use practices, such as for growth promotion or for viral and parasitic diseases, and access to antibiotics even in the open market, that promote the emergence of antibiotic resistance in poultry production system in Ethiopia. Antibiotic stewardship programs such as removing the use of antibiotics for growth promotion, OTC and open market access as well as increasing veterinary and diagnostic services will help to mitigate antibiotic resistance.