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Research Project: Rift Valley Fever Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Control Measures

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Title: Livestock challenge models of Rift Valley fever for agricultural vaccine testing

Author
item KROEKER, ANDREA - CANADIAN FOOD INSPECTION AGENCY
item BABIUK, SHAWN - CANADIAN FOOD INSPECTION AGENCY
item PICKERING, BRADLEY - CANADIAN FOOD INSPECTION AGENCY
item RICHT, JUERGEN - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
item Wilson, William

Submitted to: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/7/2020
Publication Date: 5/27/2020
Citation: Kroeker, A.L., Babiuk, S., Pickering, B.S., Richt, J.A., Wilson, W.C. 2020. Livestock challenge models of Rift Valley fever for agricultural vaccine testing. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 7:239. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00238.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00238

Interpretive Summary: Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) is widespread throughout most of Africa and is characterized by sporadic hemorrhagic and abortogenic disease outbreaks in small and large ruminants. It is also zoonotic and thus is an important mosquito-borne pathogen of animal and public health concern. There is a risk that RVFV could also appear in the Americas, similar to the West Nile virus. In light of this potential threat, multiple studies have been undertaken to establish international surveillance programs and diagnostic tools, develop models of transmission dynamics and risk factors for infection, and to develop a variety of vaccines as countermeasures. This review emphasizes the progress and insights from the authors’ efforts to establish challenge models in target livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats with comparisons to other researchers’ reports. A brief summary of the potential role of wildlife, such as Buffalo, white-tailed deer and etc., as reservoir species will also be discussed.

Technical Abstract: Since the discovery of Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) in Kenya in 1930, the virus has become widespread throughout most of Africa and is characterized by sporadic outbreaks. A mosquito-borne pathogen, RVFV is poised to move beyond the African continent and the Middle East and emerge in Europe and Asia. There is a risk that RVFV could also appear in the Americas, similar to the West Nile virus. In light of this potential threat, multiple studies have been undertaken to establish international surveillance programs and diagnostic tools, develop models of transmission dynamics and risk factors for infection, and to develop a variety of vaccines as countermeasures. Furthermore, considerable efforts to establish reliable challenge models of Rift Valley fever virus have been made and platforms for testing potential vaccines and therapeutics in target species have been established. This review emphasizes the progress and insights from the authors’ efforts to establish challenge models in target livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats with comparisons to other researchers’ reports. A brief summary of the potential role of wildlife, such as Buffalo, white-tailed deer and etc., as reservoir species will also be discussed.