|WOYESSA, MEZENE - Wollega University|
|MAMMO, GEZAHGNE - Addis Ababa University|
|GUMI, BALAKO - Addis Ababa University|
|KUMSA, BERSISSA - Addis Ababa University|
|TESFAYE, BOKA - Jimma University|
|SORI, TAKELE - Jimma University|
Submitted to: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/12/2021
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne gastrointestinal infections in humans. Poultry is a common source of infection. Although Salmonella usually causes self-limiting gastrointestinal disturbances such as diarrhea, in the most susceptible population, it causes severe systemic infections that require antibiotic therapy. The increase in the occurrence of drug resistant Salmonella limits the availability effective antibiotics to treat life threatening infections. Most infections are acquired through consumption of improperly cooked poultry products (meat and egg). However, farm workers can acquire infections through direct contact with infected chicken. Outbreaks of Salmonella infections has recently increased in children exposed to backyard poultry. The study conducted in Ethiopia found that Salmonella occurs more in the intensive than the backyard production system. About two-thirds of the isolates showed reduced resistance to antimicrobials, mainly with resistance to older antibiotics. This study showed a widespread occurrence of drug resistant Salmonella in poultry and products at farms and in farm workers. Mitigations are required to control Salmonella in poultry farms and its subsequent spread along the processing and distribution chain.
Technical Abstract: Salmonella is the second major cause of foodborne bacterial infections in humans worldwide and poultry is a major source of infection. Drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella, such as quinolone and 3rd and higher generation cephalosporin resistant strains, are regarded by World Health Organization as a critically important highest priority pathogen. Studies from developing countries like Ethiopia are scarce. We conducted a cross sectional study to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella in intensive and semi-intensive commercial and backyard poultry farms, poultry meat and eggs, and farm workers. Salmonella was cultured from 500 fecal samples of chicken, 153 eggs, 100 meat samples and 27 hand swabs of farm workers. The prevalence of Salmonella was 18.4% in the fecal samples, 14.8% in the hand swabs of farm workers, 4.5% of eggs and 6% of meat samples. The highest prevalence was observed in intensive production system (16.9%) and the lowest was found in backyard scavenging system (7.4%). Risk factors such as farm type (P=0.006), production type (P=0.001), breed (P=0.005) and sample type (P=0.001) were significantly associated with Salmonella prevalence. Salmonella isolates (n=37) were tested for their resistance against 15 antimicrobials using disc diffusion method. Majority of the isolates (24/37) were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The prevalence of resistance was high to chloramphenicol (62.2%), tetracycline (59.5%), ampicillin (54.1%) and streptomycin (51.4%). More than half of the isolates (56.8%) were multidrug resistant (resistance to =3 antimicrobial classes). Our results showed a widespread occurrence of drug resistant Salmonella in poultry farms in the study area. Measures to control Salmonella infections in poultry are needed to reduce foodborne infections in humans.