|GUTEMA, FANTA - Addis Ababa University|
|MAKITA, KOHEI - Rakuno Gakuen University|
|SMITH, REBECCA - University Of Illinois|
|MOURITS, MONIQUE - Wageningen University And Research Center|
|TUFA, TAKELE - Addis Ababa University|
|LETA, SAMSON - Addis Ababa University|
|BEYENE, TARIKU - The Ohio State University|
|ASSEFFA, ZERIHUN - Addis Ababa University|
|URGE, BEKSISSA - Ethiopian Institute Of Agricultural Research|
|AMENI, GOBENA - Addis Ababa University|
Submitted to: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/26/2020
Publication Date: 12/16/2020
Citation: Gutema, F.D., Agga, G.E., Makita, K., Smith, R.L., Mourits, M., Tufa, T.B., Leta, S., Beyene, T.J., Asseffa, Z., Urge, B., Ameni, G. 2020. Evaluation of options to control bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopia using multi-criteria decision analysis. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 7. Article 586056. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.586056.
Interpretive Summary: Cattle tuberculosis can infect people through consumption of improperly cooked meat or unpasteurized milk obtained from infected cattle. It causes infections mostly outside of the lungs such as in the lymph nodes and bones. Although meat inspection and milk pasteurization significantly reduced the burden of infection in cattle in developed countries, it is endemic in developing countries. Testing, tracing and isolation played a significant role in reducing the infection in cattle and in protecting the public in developed countries. However, these measures are expensive or practically impossible since the disease burden is very high. Therefore, alternative control options are needed. Control options were identified in Ethiopia through interactive discussions among stakeholders and individual preferences. Calf vaccination, and test and slaughter of positive animals with full government compensation were the preferred control options identified by the stakeholders. Although calf vaccination has been experimentally proven to be effective, there is no approved commercial vaccine for use in cattle. Test and slaughter approach is both expensive and violates animal welfare thus putting the social acceptability of this option into question. Therefore, commercializing safe and effective vaccine for cattle, and enhanced meat inspection and milk pasteurization remain the best options to protect the public health.
Technical Abstract: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium bovis. It poses serious public health impacts and food security challenges to the agricultural industry through loss of dairy products and meat. In Ethiopia, BTB is a priority disease with high prevalence in urban and peri-urban dairy farms. Currently, a national control program is lacking. To initiate a BTB control in the country, information on control options is needed to tailor the best option to the situation in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to identify, evaluate and rank different BTB control options in Ethiopia using a multi-criteria decision analysis based on preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations approach while accounting for the stakeholders’ preferences. Control options were evaluated under two scenarios: with (scenario 1) and without (scenario 2) bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination. Nine potential control options were identified that consisted combinations of three control options: 1) test and slaughter with or without cost sharing or governmental support, 2) test and segregation, and 3) BCG vaccination. Under scenario 1, BCG vaccination, BCG vaccination and test and slaughter with partial compensation by government, and BCG vaccination, and test and slaughter with full compensation by government were the top three ranked control options. Under scenario 2, test and slaughter with full government compensation was the preferred control option followed by test and segregation, test and slaughter with full compensation by government, and test and slaughter with half compensation by government. Irrespective of the variability in the weighting by the stakeholders, the sensitivity analysis showed the robustness of the ranking method. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that BCG vaccination, and test and slaughter with full compensation of the cost by government were the two most preferred control options under scenario 1 and 2, respectively. National level discussions are strongly recommended to implement the control options. The identified control options in this study can also serve as a model for other countries especially for developing countries.