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ARS Home » Plains Area » Houston, Texas » Children's Nutrition Research Center » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #376458

Research Project: Microbiota and Nutritional Health

Location: Children's Nutrition Research Center

Title: Co-occurrence of campylobacter species in children from Eastern Ethiopia, and their association with environmental enteric dysfunction, diarrhea, and host microbiome

item TEREFE, YITAGELE - The Ohio State University
item DEBLAIS, LOIC - The Ohio State University
item GHANEM, MOSTAFA - The Ohio State University
item HELMY, YOSRA - The Ohio State University
item MUMMED, BAHAR - Ethiopia Haramaya University
item CHEN, DEHAO - University Of Florida
item SINGH, NITYA - University Of Florida
item AHYONG, VIDA - Chan Zuckerberg Biohub
item KALANTAR, KATRINA - Chan Zuckerberg Initiative
item YIMER, GETNET - The Ohio State University
item HASSEN, JEMAL - Ethiopia Haramaya University
item MOHAMMED, ABDULMUEN - Ethiopia Haramaya University
item MCKUNE, SARAH - University Of Florida
item MANARY, MARK - Children'S Nutrition Research Center (CNRC)
item ORDIZ, MARIA - Washington University
item GEBREYES, WONDWOSSEN - The Ohio State University
item HAVELAAR, ARIE - University Of Florida
item RAJASHEKARA, GIREESH - The Ohio State University

Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/12/2020
Publication Date: 4/15/2020
Citation: Terefe, Y., Deblais, L., Ghanem, M., Helmy, Y.A., Mummed, B., Chen, D., Singh, N., Ahyong, V., Kalantar, K., Yimer, G., Hassen, J.Y., Mohammed, A., McKune, S.L., Manary, M.J., Ordiz, M.I., Gebreyes, W., Havelaar, A.H., Rajashekara, G. 2020. Co-occurrence of campylobacter species in children from Eastern Ethiopia, and their association with environmental enteric dysfunction, diarrhea, and host microbiome. Frontiers in Public Health. 8:99.

Interpretive Summary: Campylobacter is a bacteria known to cause diarrhea in early childhood in low resource settings. This study tested for Campylobacter in stools, and gut health in well Ethiopian children. Campylobacter was found in 88% of stools and was associated with poor gut health, suggesting that Campylobacter is damaging to young children. The unique changes in the microbiome in these children may serve as biomarkers for disease status and can help to elucidate the complex interactions between Campylobacter, the gut microbiome, Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and stunting in the context of the socio-economic environment of children in rural Ethiopia.

Technical Abstract: High Campylobacter prevalence during early childhood has been associated with stunting and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), especially in low resource settings. This study assessed the prevalence, diversity, abundance, and co-occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in stools from children in a rural area of eastern Ethiopia and their association with microbiome, diarrhea, and EED in children. Stool samples (n=100) were collected from randomly selected children (age range: 360-498 days) in five kebeles in Haramaya District, Ethiopia. Diarrhea, compromised gut permeability, and gut inflammation were observed in 48, 45, and 57% of children, respectively. Campylobacter prevalence and species diversity were assessed using PCR and meta-total RNA sequencing (MeTRS). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the children's stools was 50% (41-60%) by PCR and 88% (80-93.6%) by MeTRS (P<0.01). Further, seven Campylobacter species (Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter sp. RM6137, uncultured Campylobacter sp., and Campylobacter sp. RM12175) were detected by MeTRS in at least 40% of children stools in high abundance (>1.76-log read per million per positive stool sample). Four clusters of Campylobacter species (5-12 species per cluster) co-occurred in the stool samples, suggesting that Campylobacter colonization of children may have occurred through multiple reservoirs or from a reservoir in which several Campylobacter species may co-inhabit. No associations between Campylobacter spp., EED, and diarrhea were detected in this cross-sectional study; however, characteristic microbiome profiles were identified based on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., EED severity, and diarrhea. Forty-seven bacterial species were correlated with Campylobacter, and 13 of them also correlated with gut permeability, gut inflammation and/or EED severity. Forty-nine species not correlated with Campylobacter were correlated with gut permeability, gut inflammation, EED severity and/or diarrhea. This study demonstrated that (1) in addition to C. jejuni and C. coli, multiple non-thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (i.e., Campylobacter hyointestinalis, Campylobacter fetus, and Campylobacter concisus) were frequently detected in the children's stools and (2) the Campylobacter, gut permeability, gut inflammation, EED severity, and diarrhea were associated with characteristic microbiome composition. Additional spatial and longitudinal studies are needed to identify environmental reservoirs and sources of infection of children with disparate Campylobacter species and to better define their associations with EED in low-income countries.