|DORLING, JAMES - Pennington Biomedical Research Center|
|VAN VLIET, STEPHAN - Duke University|
|HUFFMAN, KIM - Duke University|
|KRAUS, WILLIAM - Duke University|
|BHAPKAR, MANJUSHRI - Duke University|
|PIEPER, CARL - Duke University|
|STEWART, TIFFANY - Pennington Biomedical Research Center|
|DAS, SAI KRUPA - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|RACETTE, SUSAN - Washington University|
|ROBERTS, SUSAN - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|RAVUSSIN, ERIC - Pennington Biomedical Research Center|
|REDMAN, LEANNE - Pennington Biomedical Research Center|
|MARTIN, CORBY - Pennington Biomedical Research Center|
Submitted to: Nutrition Reviews
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/7/2020
Publication Date: 9/17/2020
Citation: Dorling, J.L., Van Vliet, S., Huffman, K.M., Kraus, W.E., Bhapkar, M., Pieper, C.F., Stewart, T., Das, S., Racette, S.B., Roberts, S.B., Ravussin, E., Redman, L.M., Martin, C.K. 2020. Effects of caloric restriction on human physiological, psychological, and behavioral outcomes: highlights from CALERIE phase 2. Nutrition Reviews. 79(1):98-113. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa085.
Interpretive Summary: Calorie restriction is the only intervention demonstrated to extend lifespan in animal models, but its effects on human lifespan and health remain unclear. This review summarizes data from the 2-year CALERIE study, which was a randomized trial of calorie restriction versus no restriction in health humans without obesity. The results demonstrate improvements in glucose tolerance, triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol, and improvements in mood and working memory with calorie restriction. Safety monitoring also indicated a loss of bone mineral density.
Technical Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) is a strategy that attenuates aging in multiple nonhuman species. The Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) trials are part of a research program aiming to test the effects of CR on aging and longevity biomarkers in humans. Building on CALERIE phase 1, CALERIE phase 2 (CALERIE 2) was the largest study to date to assess sustained CR in healthy humans without obesity. In a 24-month randomized controlled trial comprising 218 participants at baseline, CALERIE 2 showed that moderate CR, 11.9% on average, induced improvements in aging-related biomarkers without adversely affecting psychological or behavioral outcomes. The objectives of this report are to summarize and review the highlights of CALERIE 2 and report previously unpublished results on eating disorder symptoms and cognitive function. This article specifically summarizes the physiological, psychological, aging, behavioral, and safety results of the trial. Also provided are research directions beyond CALERIE 2 that highlight important opportunities to investigate the role of CR in aging, longevity, and health span in humans.