Location: Cereal Crops ResearchTitle: Impact of defatting treatment and oat varieties on structural, functional properties, and aromatic profile of oat protein
|YUE, JIANXIONG - North Dakota State University|
|GU, ZIXUAN - University Of Science And Technology Of China|
|ZHU, ZHENBAO - University Of Science And Technology Of China|
|YI, JIANHUA - University Of Science And Technology Of China|
|CHEN, BINGCAN - North Dakota State University|
|RAO, JIAJIA - North Dakota State University|
Submitted to: Food Hydrocolloids
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/23/2020
Publication Date: 9/24/2020
Citation: Yue, J., Gu, Z., Zhu, Z., Yi, J., Ohm, J., Chen, B., Rao, J. 2020. Impact of defatting treatment and oat varieties on structural, functional properties, and aromatic profile of oat protein. Food Hydrocolloids. 112:106368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2020.106368.
Interpretive Summary: Oat grain is a promising resource for obtaining plant-based proteins because of high protein content and nutritional quality. However, very limited information is available on the extraction of proteins in oat. This study was performed to evaluate the impact of the fat removal on protein extraction in oat. The result showed that the extraction yield was decreased but protein purity of the extract was increased when fat was removed from oat flour before extraction. Moreover, the fat removal treatment improved the quality characteristics of protein extracts such as solubility, foaming capacity and emulsifying properties. Oat varieties also showed difference in the protein quality characteristics, indicating that the selection of oat varieties is important to increase the value and promote the utilization of oat in the food industry. The results of this study will help promote the utilization of oat grain as a source of plant proteins in the food industry.
Technical Abstract: In this study, two naked (ND04034 and Paul) and two hulled (Beach and CDC Minstrel) oat varieties were selected to determine the impact of varieties and flour defatting treatment on extraction performance, structural and functional properties, and aromatic profiles of the extracted oat proteins. The results showed that oat protein extracted from defatted flour (DF) had a higher oat protein content (>86.93%) but a lower extraction yield and recovery yield compared to that from non-defatted flour (NDF) of same variety. Amino acid (AA) analysis indicated that the relative percent of individual AA showed a great similarity among the samples, while oat protein from hulled oat varieties had higher essential AA. SDS-PAGE results suggested the higher proportion of 7S globulins in oat proteins from DF. Both circular dichroism and FT-IR confirmed ß-sheet, a-helix and ß-turn were the main secondary structures in oat proteins. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that oat proteins from DF had better thermal stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observed the big flaky plate like structures in oat proteins from DF which may account for the improved solubility. Moreover, oat proteins from DF exhibited better functionalities, including solubility, foaming capacity and emulsifying properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) classified oat proteins into 3 groups/clusters on account of aromatic components. Venn diagram allowed us to differentiate oat proteins from different varieties via the aroma makers identified. The findings endow a great potential of preparing oat proteins with superior functionality and aromatic profiles for food applications.