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Research Project: New Sustainable Processing Technologies to Produce Healthy, Value-Added Foods from Specialty Crops

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

Title: Effects of drying processes on composition, microstructure and health aspects from maqui berries

item QUISPE-FUENTES, ISSIS - University Of La Serena
item VEGA-GALVEZ, ANTONIO - University Of La Serena
item ARANDA, MARIO - University Of Concepcion
item POBLETE, JACQUELINE - University Of La Serena
item PASTEN, ALEXIS - University Of La Serena
item Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina
item Wood, Delilah - De
item McHugh, Tara
item DELPORTE, CARLA - University Of Chile

Submitted to: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/16/2020
Publication Date: 1/24/2020
Citation: Quispe-Fuentes, I., Vega-Galvez, A., Aranda, M., Poblete, J., Pasten, A., Bilbao-Sainz, C., Wood, D.F., McHugh, T.H., Delporte, C. 2020. Effects of drying processes on composition, microstructure and health aspects from maqui berries. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 57:2241-2250.

Interpretive Summary: Maqui berries is a tree or shrub species native to Chile. The plant yields small and edible purple-black berries that contain high unsaturated fatty acids content as well as micronutrients and minerals in its seeds. The high concentration of phytochemicals, may be responsible for the excellent anti-inflammatory, a-glucosidase and lipase inhibition activities. However, fresh fruits are quickly degraded under ambient conditions. Therefore, fruit stabilization after harvest can increase the shelf-life of these berries. One of the most frequently used stabilization processes is dehydration. We evaluated the effects of different drying methods (freeze-, convective-, sun-, infrared- and vacuum-drying) on chemical composition, anti-inflammatory and a-glucosidase activities of maqui fruits. We found out that freeze drying is the most desirable drying method. FD maqui berries have 53% dietary fiber and a lipid fraction with high unsaturation (up to 83%) and high PUFA/SFA ratio (3.34). It also had the highest a-tocopherol content (21% of the RDI in 100 grams). FD maqui extracts also showed high anti-inflammatory activity against phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) and arachidonic acid (AA). In addition, FD maqui extracts exhibited the highest inhibition of a-glucosidase activity.

Technical Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of different drying methods, including freeze drying (FD), convective drying, sun drying, infrared drying and vacuum drying (VD), on the chemical composition and microstructure of maqui berries as well as their anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. Results showed that all dried samples have high unsaturated fatty acids contents (up to 83%) and high total dietary fiber contents (above 50%). Also, one hundred grams of dried berries provide between 11 and 21% of the recommended daily intake of a-tocopherol. Moreover, all dried maqui extracts reduced topical inflammation in treated mice. The highest anti-inflammatory effect against phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was found for VD and FD samples. Also, all dried maqui extracts showed antidiabetic activity by inhibiting a-glucosidase activity. The highest a-glucosidase inhibition activity was found for FD samples. The different biological activities of the dried maqui berries were related to differences in the extractability of metabolites due to microstructural changes during drying. The results indicated the potential use of dried maqui as a food ingredient with high unsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber and a-tocopherol or as a natural extract with therapeutic agents.