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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BARC) » Beltsville Agricultural Research Center » Food Quality Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #375354

Research Project: Rapid Methods for Quality and Safety Inspection of Small Grain Cereals

Location: Food Quality Laboratory

Title: Sensory and physicochemical properties of whole wheat salted noodles under different preparations of bran

item SIM, EUNYEONG - Rural Development Administration - Korea
item Park, Eunhee
item MA, FENGYUN - The Ohio State University
item Baik, Byung-Kee
item Fonseca, Jorge
item Delwiche, Stephen - Steve

Submitted to: Journal of Cereal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/5/2020
Publication Date: 10/13/2020
Citation: Sim, E., Park, E., Ma, F., Baik, B.V., Fonseca, J.M., Delwiche, S.R. 2020. Sensory and physicochemical properties of whole wheat salted noodles under different preparations of bran. Journal of Cereal Science. 96(1):Article 103112.

Interpretive Summary: Whole wheat products becoming increasingly popular in the human diet for reasons of improved nutrition and health. However, the presence of the components other than the starchy endosperm (i.e., white flour) typically results in flour having a shortened shelf life. A possible solution for lengthening shelf life is thermal processing of the bran whereby compounds prone to degradation are stabilized, and enzymes responsible for promoting degradation reactions are deactivated. Although the properties of many whole wheat products such as bread have been extensively studied, much less is known about how such formulations affect salted noodles, a popular product in Asian countries. Even less is known about the consumer's perception of appearance, mouthfeel, and flavor of the whole wheat version of this product. Through research known as sensory property analysis, a study was conducted using a trained panel of ten individuals to assess the properties of five thermal processing treatments of isolated wheat bran, which, when combined with refined flour, produced whole wheat flours that were the primary ingredients in salted noodles. Along with a 'treatment' that involved no thermal processing of wheat bran, all six conditions produced acceptable noodles, as judged by panelists' scores and by separate chemical and physical analyses. The bran treatment 'puffing' usually produced noodles with the most desirable sensory attributes, while the treatment 'jet-cooking' produced noodles with the least. Beneficiaries of this research include whole wheat manufacturers as well as the consumer desiring a shelf-stable whole wheat noodle with enhanced nutritional properties.

Technical Abstract: Whole wheat products have gained popularity in recent years due to the health and nutritional benefits, with Asian salted noodles as one formulation. However, enzymatic activity and lipid oxidation result in a shorter shelf life for whole wheat noodles. A possible solution for lengthening shelf life is thermal processing of the bran whereby lipids become stabilized and lipase, peroxidase, endoxylanase, and alpha-amylase are inactivated. Unknown are the changes to the sensory properties of whole wheat noodles when bran undergoes such processing. This study examined changes to sensory properties, texture (tensile and compressive strength), color, and cooking by-products for bran that underwent five forms of thermal processing: autoclaving, extrusion, jet-cooking, puffing, and roasting. Using refined flour milled from one soft red winter wheat standard mixed with thermally processed commercial wheat bran (85:15, flour:bran, dry basis), noodles from the five bran treatments plus control (untreated bran) were presented to a trained panel of ten individuals who scored the treatments for properties of appearance, mouthfeel, and flavor. Sensory properties (uniformity, smoothness, glossiness, opacity, color, firmness, wheatiness, roastedness, bitterness, and aftertaste), as well as texture properties (strength and energy), noodle hydration (water uptake) during cooking, solids loss to cook water, and color of the cooked noodles showed significant differences among treatments, The puffed treatment often had the most extreme values in the direction of desirability. The jet-cooked treatment, on the other hand, was often extreme in the other direction. Bran processing tended to increase water uptake. All bran treatments produced acceptable noodles.