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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Pullman, Washington » WHGQ » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #374806

Research Project: Characterization of Quality and Marketability of Western U.S. Wheat Genotypes and Phenotypes

Location: Wheat Health, Genetics, and Quality Research

Title: Soft durum wheat as a potential ingredient for direct expanded extruded products

item Morris, Craig

Submitted to: Journal of Cereal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/5/2021
Publication Date: 2/16/2021
Publication URL:
Citation: Gu, B., Kerr, C.J., Morris, C.F., Ganjayl, G. 2021. Soft durum wheat as a potential ingredient for direct expanded extruded products. Journal of Cereal Science. 98. Article 103184.

Interpretive Summary: Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), a tetraploid, is one of the most widely cultivated wheat species whose use is primarily pasta and couscous. Compared to common wheat (T. aestivum), however, durum wheat is not widely cultivated because of its natural characteristics having an extremely hard kernel texture even though it has a benefit on crop yield under heat stress and drought. Soft durum wheat flour had reasonable expansion quality during extrusion processing. High mechanical energy input resulting from the conditions of lower moisture content, lower barrel temperature, and higher screw speed generally resulted in the best expansion and low unit density extrudates that are related to crispy and crunchy textures. The high mechanical energy led to higher molecular degradation of starch, increasing the water solubility index that increases the melt-in-mouth property of the extrudates. The moisture content of the feed material was concluded as the most critical parameter. The results from this research prove the viability of the use of soft durum wheat for the direct expanded product.

Technical Abstract: Soft durum wheat was extruded to evaluate the influences of independent parameters (three barrel temperatures, moisture contents, and screw speeds each) on system parameters (back pressure, torque, and specific mechanical energy) and product responses (expansion ratio, unit density, and water absorption/solubility indices). The lowest barrel temperature (120') and moisture content (16%) with the highest screw speed (250 rpm) resulted in the highest specific mechanical energy, expansion ratio, and water solubility index in the extrudates. Among the three independent parameters evaluated, moisture content was found to be the most influential factor in the system parameters and product responses. The notable impact of moisture content on energy efficiency for solubility was observed. Extrudates made from soft durum wheat had a reasonable expansion ratio, proving its potential usage.