|WALKER, MAURA - Boston University|
|XANTHAKIS, VANESSA - Boston University|
|MOORE, LYNN - Boston University|
|VASAN, RAMACHANDRAN - Boston University|
|JACQUES, PAUL - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
Submitted to: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/19/2019
Publication Date: 12/11/2019
Citation: Walker, M.E., Xanthakis, V., Moore, L.L., Vasan, R.S., Jacques, P.F. 2019. Cumulative sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with higher concentrations of circulating ceramides in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 111:420-428. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz257.
Interpretive Summary: Ceramides are a type of waxy lipid molecule, and some recent evidence suggests that the amount of ceramides in an individual's blood may be one indication of their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (ie. a 'biomarker' for diabetes and cardiovascular disease), with higher concentrations of certain ceramides being associated with adverse health effects. It is not known how diet affects ceramide concentrations. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is associated with ceramide concentrations in the blood. Our results showed that higher concentrations of certain ceramides from SSB consumption may be one way by which SSB consumption increases risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Future research should look at the association between long-term SSB consumption, ceramides and cardiometabolic risk to better understand the actions of SSBs and ceramides in cardiometabolic disease.
Technical Abstract: Background: Ceramides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Limited data exist on how habitual dietary intake of foods that can alter hepatic lipid metabolism may influence circulating ceramide concentrations. Objective: We investigated the cross-sectional association of cumulative sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption with concentrations of 3 circulating ceramides and ceramide ratios. Methods: We examined participants from the Framingham Heart Study's Offspring Cohort who had 3 ceramides measured (n =1561, mean age 66 y, 59% women). SSB consumption was measured 4 times over ~14 y. Participants were categorized by cumulative SSB intake as nonconsumers (0 to <1 SSB serving/mo) and occasional (1 SSB serving/mo to <1 serving/wk), frequent (1 SSB serving/wk to <1 serving/d), and daily (>/=1 SSB serving/d) consumers. Multivariable linear regression models were used to relate cumulative SSB consumption (independent variable) to blood concentrations of ceramides (C16:0, C22:0, and C24:0) and ceramide ratios (C22:0/C16:0 and C24:0/C16:0). Results: In adjusted models, more frequent cumulative SSB consumption was positively associated with concentrations of the C16:0 and C22:0 ceramides (Ptrend < 0.05). Compared with nonconsumers, daily consumers had 0.01 microgram/mL (95% CI: 0.002, 0.017 microgram/mL) and 0.06 microgram/mL (95% CI: 0.018, 0.092 microgram/mL) higher mean concentrations of the C16:0 and C22:0 ceramides, respectively. Results were consistent when modeling continuous cumulative SSB consumption per 1 serving/d. We observed effect modification by diabetes status in the relation between cumulative SSB consumption and concentrations of the C24:0 ceramide (Pinteraction = 0.014). In a stratified analysis, more frequent cumulative SSB consumption was positively associated with concentrations of the C24:0 ceramide only in individuals with prediabetes or diabetes (Ptrend = 0.001). Conclusions: Our study raises the possibility that higher concentrations of distinct ceramide species, previously associated with adverse metabolic health, may be one mechanism by which SSB consumption contributes to higher risk of cardiometabolic diseases.