|DAS, SAI KRUPA - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|MASON, SHAWN - Johnson & Johnson Co|
|VAIL, TAYLOR - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|BLANCHARD, CAROLINE - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|CHIN, MEGHAN - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|ROGERS, GAIL - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|LIVINGSTON, KARA - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|TURGISS, JENNIFER - Johnson & Johnson Co|
Submitted to: American Journal of Health Promotion
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/22/2019
Publication Date: 1/1/2020
Citation: Das, S., Mason, S.T., Vail, T.A., Blanchard, C.M., Chin, M.K., Rogers, G., Livingston, K.A., Turgiss, J.L. 2020. Sustained long-term effectiveness of an energy management training course on employee vitality and purpose in life. American Journal of Health Promotion. 34(2):177-188. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117119883585.
Interpretive Summary: In recent years, programs focused on wellbeing have gained momentum, and vitality (energy) and purpose in life (PiL) have emerged as key components of a healthy lifestyle. Nevertheless, few programs - including those targeting vitality and PiL - have been rigorously tested for long-term effectiveness. In an 18-month study, we evaluated an intensive, multi-component, group-based wellness program emphasizing vitality and PiL. The 2.5-day program is grounded in two distinct models, with the goal of eliciting behavior change over the long term. Using the Energy Management Model, the program helps participants develop attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors that align with their PiL, increase their daily energy levels, and improve their overall functioning. Using the Change Process Model, the program helps participants establish purpose or direction in life, candidly compare their current life with their desired direction, and create an "action plan" for making and sustaining positive changes after program completion. Our study implemented the program in 163 employees with follow-up measures at 12 and 18 months. At 18 months, sustained improvements were observed for vitality, PiL, and other quality-of-life metrics, as well as for sleep, blood pressure, and waist and hip circumference. Our findings suggest that wellness programs such as the one examined here have the potential to enhance psychological health when implemented alone or in conjunction with other health-related interventions. Further research is required to determine whether sustained improvements in psychological well-being may reduce medical expenditure and health-care costs.
Technical Abstract: Purpose: Programs designed to sustainably improve employee well-being are urgently needed but insufficiently researched. This study evaluates the long-term effectiveness of a commercial well-being intervention in a worksite setting. Design: A pre/postintervention repeated analysis with follow-up at 6, 12, and 18 months. Setting: Office-based worksites (for-profit, nonprofit, and mixed work-type; n = 8). Participants: One hundred sixty-three employees with a mean age of 47 (11) years (57% female). Intervention: A 2.5-day group-based behavioral program emphasizing vitality and purpose in life (PiL). Measures: Rand Medical Outcomes Survey (MOS) 36-Item Short Form (SF-36) with a focus on vitality (primary outcome), Ryff PiL Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Profile of Mood States, Rand MOS Sleep Scale, physical activity, body weight, blood pressure, and blood measures for glucose and lipids at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Analysis: General linear models with repeated measures for mean values at baseline and follow-up. Results: At 18-month follow-up, sustained improvements were observed for vitality, general health, and mental health domains of SF-36 and PiL (P < .001 for all measures). Sleep, mood, vigor, physical activity, and blood pressure were also improved at 18 months (P < .05 for all measures). Conclusions: An intensive 2.5-day intervention showed sustained improvement in employee quality of life, PiL, and other measures of well-being over 18 months.