|SAHNI, SHIVANI - Hebrew Senior Life|
|DUFOUR, ALYSSA - Hebrew Senior Life|
|FIELDING, ROGER - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
|NEWMAN, ANNE - University Of Pittsburgh|
|KIEL, DOUGLAS - Hebrew Senior Life|
|HANNAN, MARIAN - Hebrew Senior Life|
|JACQUES, PAUL - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
Submitted to: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/22/2020
Publication Date: 11/12/2020
Citation: Sahni, S., Dufour, A.B., Fielding, R.A., Newman, A.B., Kiel, D.P., Hannan, M.T., Jacques, P.F. 2020. Total carotenoid intake is protective against loss of grip strength and gait speed over time in adults: the Framingham Offspring Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 113(2):437-445. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa288.
Interpretive Summary: Loss of muscle and physical function with aging, called sarcopenia, is of great concern as the number of older adults in the US is projected to increase more than 60 percent in the next 15 years. Antioxidants are substances that can slow or prevent cell damage, and our study shows that antioxidant intake may protect against loss of grip strength and gait speed (a measure of walking ability). Reduced grip strength and slower gait speed are two markers of sarcopenia, thus highlighting the importance of continued research examining the potential for dietary antioxidants to improve muscle strength and physical function.
Technical Abstract: Background Lower antioxidant serum concentrations have been linked to declines in lean mass and physical function in older adults. Yet population data on the effect of dietary antioxidants on loss of muscle strength and physical function are lacking. Objective We sought to determine the association of antioxidant intake [vitamin C, vitamin E, and total and individual carotenoids (a-carotene, B-carotene, B-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin)] with annualized change in grip strength and gait speed in adults from the Framingham Offspring study. Methods This prospective cohort study included participants with a valid FFQ at the index examination and up to 2 prior examinations and at >=2 measures of primary outcomes: grip strength (n = 2452) and/or gait speed (n = 2422) measured over 3 subsequent examinations. Annualized change in grip strength (kg/y) and change in gait speed (m/s/y) over the follow-up period were used. Linear regression was used to calculate B coefficients and P values, adjusting for covariates. Results Mean +/- SD age of participants was 61 +/- 9 y (range: 33-88 y). Median intakes (IQR, mg/d) of vitamin C, vitamin E, and total carotenoid across available examinations were 209.2 (133.1-394.2), 27.1 (7.4-199.0), and 15.3 (10.4-21.3), respectively. The mean follow-up time was ~12 +/- 2 y (range: 4.5-15.4 y). In the sex-combined sample, higher intakes of total carotenoids, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin were associated with increased annualized change in grip strength [B (SE) per 10-mg higher intake/d, range: 0.0316 (0.0146) to 0.1223 (0.0603) kg/y)]. All antioxidants except for vitamin C were associated with faster gait speed [B (SE) per 10-mg higher intake/d, range: 0.00008 (0.00004) to 0.0187 (0.0081) m/s/y]. Conclusions Higher antioxidant intake was associated with increase in grip strength and faster gait speed in this cohort of adults. This finding highlights the need for a randomized controlled trial of dietary antioxidants and their effect on muscle strength and physical function.