|ACHARYA, MOHAN - University Of Arkansas|
|Donoghue, Ann - Annie|
|ARSI, KOMALA - University Of Arkansas|
|LIYANAGE, ROHANA - University Of Arkansas|
Submitted to: BMC Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/29/2020
Publication Date: 6/5/2020
Citation: Acharya, M., Rath, N.C., Donoghue, A.M., Arsi, K., Liyanage, R. 2020. Production and characterization of avian crypt-villus enteroids and the effect of chemicals. BMC Veterinary Research. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02397-1.
Interpretive Summary: Organoids are 3 dimensional constructs of tissues that recapitulate many of the organ functions outside of the body therefore, useful to study organ physiologies and interactions with chemicals and pathogens. Using chicken intestinal mucousal tissues we developed enteroids which can help screening assays to understand intestinal physiologies. The enteroids contained different cell types inherent to intestinal epithelia and respond to the effect of different test chemicals such as growth factors, hormones, mycotoxins, and nutrients.
Technical Abstract: Background: Three-dimensional models of cell culture such as organoids and mini organs accord better advantage over regular cell culture because of their ability to simulate organ functions hence, used for disease modeling, metabolic research, and the development of therapeutics strategies. However, most advances in this area are limited to mammalian species with little progress in others such as poultry where it can be deployed to study problems of agricultural importance. In the course of enterocyte culture in chicken, we observed that intestinal mucosal villus-crypts self-repair and form spheroid-like structures which appear to be useful as ex vivo models to study enteric physiology and diseases. Results: The villus-crypts harvested from chicken intestinal mucosa were cultured to generate enteroids, purified by filtration then re cultured with different chemicals and growth factors to assess their response based on their morphological dispositions. Histochemical analyses using marker antibodies and probes showed the enteroids consisting different cell types such as epithelial, goblet, and enteroendocrine cells typical to villi and retain functional characteristics of intestinal mucosa. Conclusions: We present a simple procedure to generate avian crypt-villous enteroids containing different cell types. Because the absorptive cells are functionally positioned outwards, similar to the luminal enterocytes, the cells have better advantages to interact with the factors present in the culture medium. Thus, the enteroids have the potential to study the physiology, metabolism, and pathology of the intestinal villi and can be useful for preliminary screenings of the factors that may affect gut health in a cost-effective manner and reduce the use of live animals.