|KAUR, NANCYDEEP - Guru Nanak Dev University|
|SINGH, BALWINDER - Khalsa College|
|KAUR, AMRITPAL - Guru Nanak Dev University|
|SINGH, NARPINDER - Guru Nanak Dev University|
|AHLAWART, ARVIND - Indian Council Of Agricultural Research (ICAR)|
|SINGH, ANJU - Indian Agricultural Research Institute|
Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/23/2020
Publication Date: 9/29/2020
Citation: Kaur, N., Singh, B., Kaur, A., Yadav, M.P., Singh, N., Ahlawart, A.K., Singh, A.M. 2020. Effect of growing conditions on proximate composition, mineral, antioxidant properties, amino acid and phenolic composition of wheatgrass from different wheat varieties. Food Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128201.
Interpretive Summary: Wheatgrass is the main food crop grown worldwide for human consumption. The sprouts (germinated over a period of 6-10 days) of wheat grains are generally termed as “wheatgrass”. Germination and sprouting elevate vitamins, minerals, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant potential in wheatgrass. The wheatgrass is considered as good source of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, phenolic compounds, chlorophylls and active enzymes. The chlorophyll and antioxidants present in wheatgrass juice are known for numerous health benefits. These health benefits of wheatgrass prompted us to study the chemical, nutritional and phenolic composition of wheatgrass. Also, it is useful to explore how the growing conditions affect the antioxidant properties and nutritional composition of wheatgrass. So, we investigated the effect of three different growing conditions (soil, coco-peat with nutrient solution and water) on the chemical composition, nutritional value and antioxidant properties of wheatgrass from four wheat varieties (HD-3086, C-306, HD-2967, HS-490). The study showed that wheatgrass juice powder of HD-3086 and C-306 wheat verities had higher antioxidant properties, total chlorophyll and amino acids content than the other two varieties. The wheatgrass growing conditions significantly influenced their nutritional composition and antioxidant properties. The soil grown wheatgrass juice powder had higher ash content, total chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, antioxidant activity, minerals, phenolic acids and flavonoids. The juice from wheat varieties grown in coco-peat with nutrient solution showed a higher yield, protein content, minerals, and essential amino acids. These information can be of great value to the US and Indian agricultural and food processing industries and to wheatgrass growers.
Technical Abstract: Wheatgrass juice powder (WJP) from four wheat varieties grown using soil, coco-peat with nutrient solution (CNS) and water were investigated for proximate composition, mineral, antioxidant properties, amino acid and phenolic (free and bound) composition. The yield, ash and protein contents of WJP ranged between 6.78-13.57%, 5.18-15.93% and 38.75-50.17%, respectively. The total phenolic, flavonoid, chlorophyll content (TCC) and antioxidant activity varied from 8.94-12.75 mg GAE/g, 2.29-4.97 mg QE/g, 3.01-5.63 mg/g, and 8.25-9.90 µmol TE/g, respectively. WJP had abundant K, P, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe content. HD-3086 grown using soil exhibited highest antioxidant properties, TCC and Mg content. Essential amino acids (AAs) were abundant in WJP of C-306 grown using CNS. Phenolic acids (ferulic, syringic and sinapic acids) and flavonoids (catechin, rutin, vitexin and isovitexin) were the predominant phenolic compounds in WJP. The AAs and free phenolic compounds were quantified more in WJP of varieties grown using CNS and soil, respectively.