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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BARC) » Beltsville Agricultural Research Center » Invasive Insect Biocontrol & Behavior Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #372671

Research Project: Urban Landscape Integrated Pest Management

Location: Invasive Insect Biocontrol & Behavior Laboratory

Title: Field evaluation of the sex pheromone of the cacao pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) in the Philippines

item AMALIN, DIVINA - De La Salle University
item ARCELO, MERCEDES - Department Of Agriculture-Bureau Of Plant Industry
item ALMARINEZ, BILLY - De La Salle University
item CASTILLO, RHODINA - Sultan Kudarat State University
item Legaspi, Jesusa
item TAVERA, MARY ANGELIQUE - De La Salle University
item JANAIRO, JOSE ISAGANI - De La Salle University
item Zhang, Aijun

Submitted to: Frontiers in Agronomy
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/18/2023
Publication Date: 5/19/2023
Citation: Amalin, D.M., Arcelo, M., Almarinez, B.J., Castillo, R.C., Legaspi, J.C., Tavera, M.A., Janairo, J.B., Zhang, A. 2023. Field evaluation of the sex pheromone of the cacao pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) in the Philippines. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology.

Interpretive Summary: The cocoa pod borer (CPB) is the most serious insect pest of cocoa crop in Southeast Asia. It can cause up to 50 per cent annual loss. Management of CPB has been heavily relied on synthetic pesticides application. Although some efforts are being done for using sex pheromone trap to monitor and control CPB, but the efficient trap set up protocol has not been developed. In order to examine the mating activity of CPB in cocoa plantation, the sex pheromone traps were set up in different elevations along the cocoa trees in Filipino cocoa plantation for 10 moths in 2018. Our trapping results indicated that CPB mating was mainly occurred at above cocoa canopy. The sex pheromone traps that were installed at 0.5m to 1 m above the cocoa canopy showed the most efficient trap catches of male CPB comparing with the sex pheromone traps installed at other elevation. This result is valuable to maximize the trapping efficiency of the sex pheromone used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program and will help cocoa growers/farmers to develop more efficient CPB control strategies and reduce synthetic pesticide application.

Technical Abstract: Cacao is a promising high value crop in the Philippines and considered by the government as a priority crop. Before the Philippines can take the opportunity to be a major producer of cacao, production constraint such as pest management should be addressed. The cacao pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella, is one of the major insect pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. In the Philippines, this pest can cause up to 50 per cent annual loss or even higher if no proper management is employed. Management of CPB heavily relies on chemical control but very expensive and not safe to human and environment. Several efforts are being done to develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for CPB with the inclusion of the use of sex pheromone for monitoring and control. A new blend of the synthetic sex pheromone of CBP showed potential in monitoring and mass trapping activities. Field bioassay of CPB sex pheromone trap showed efficient trap catches when installed at least 0.5m above the canopy. Determination of the correct height of the CPB trap catches is valuable in maximizing the efficiency of the sex pheromone traps for inclusion in the IPM program of CPB.