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Research Project: Monitoring and Molecular Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Bacteria

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Title: Antimicrobial interventions to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter populations and improve shelf life of quail carcasses

item RINCON, ANGELA - University Of Georgia
item KUMAR, SANJAY - University Of Georgia
item RITZ, CASEY - University Of Georgia
item Jackson, Jeromey
item Jackson, Charlene
item Frye, Jonathan
item Hinton Jr, Arthur
item SINGH, MANPREET - University Of Georgia
item Cosby, Douglas
item Cox Jr, Nelson
item THIPPAREDDI, HARSHAVARDHAN - University Of Georgia

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/22/2020
Publication Date: 11/1/2020
Citation: Rincon, A., Kumar, S., Ritz, C., Jackson, J.S., Jackson, C.R., Frye, J.G., Cook, K.L., Hinton Jr, A., Singh, M., Cosby, D.E., Cox Jr, N.A., Thippareddi, H. 2020. Antimicrobial interventions to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter populations and improve shelf life of quail carcasses. Poultry Science. 99(11): 5977-5982.

Interpretive Summary: Quail is a delicacy sold in limited U.S. markets and similar to other poultry, it has a limited shelf life. Like other poultry, quail has issues with human entero-pathogens and spoilage. This study was designed to use three chemical interventions, currently used in the broiler plants, to decrease the levels of Salmonella and Campylobacter and increase the shelf life of the carcasses. Peroxyacetic acid, cetyl pyridinium chloride and Citrilow reduced Salmonella and Campylobacter populations when compared to the control with Citrilow being most effective. All of the chemicals had minimal reductions of the bacteria assayed. The ability of these chemicals to reduce the levels of the two pathogens should be of benefit in the poultry industry.

Technical Abstract: Quail (Coutournix japonica) is a delicacy and is sold in the United States in limited markets. Similar to poultry, quail is processed and marketed as fresh meat, with limited shelf life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial interventions during slaughter on reducing Salmonella and Campylobacter, and determine the microbiological quality and shelf life of quail during refrigerated (4° C) storage. Three antimicrobial interventions: peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 400 ppm), Citrilow (pH 1.2), and Cecure (Cetyl Pyridinium Chloride: CPC, 450 ppm), along with a water and no-treatment control were evaluated. Quail carcasses (n=75) were inoculated with a cocktail of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium (STNR; ca. 7 log CFU/mL) and gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter coli (CCGR; ca. 7 log CFU/mL). Following 30 min attachment time, quail carcasses were rinsed with each antimicrobial for 20 s with air agitation. Non-inoculated quail carcasses (n=25) were similarly treated, packaged and stored under refrigeration (4° C). Aerobic plate counts (APC), psychrotroph counts (PC), Enterobacteriaceae counts (ENT), total coliform counts (TCC) and E. coli counts (ECC) on Quail carcasses were determined on 1, 4, 7 and 10 days. Salmonella and Campylobacter populations were determined by plating on Petrifilm APC (delivering 200 ppm nalidixic acid) and Campy-Cefex agar, respectively. The PAA, Citrilow and CPC reduced (P=0.05) the STNR and CCGR populations compared to the control. Specifically, Citrilow showed greater (P=0.05) reduction in Salmonella and Campylobacter population (1.90 and 3.82 log CFU/ mL reduction, respectively). Minimal reductions (P>0.01 log CFU/mL) in APC, PC, ENT, TCC and ECC were observed with water treatments compared to control. Greater (P=0.05) reductions (2.22, 1.26, 1.47, 1.52, 1.59 log CFU/mL, respectively) were obtained with application of CPC. Application of antimicrobial interventions resulted in a reduction in Campylobacter and Salmonella, APC, PC and ENT populations subsequent to treatment (day 0) and throughout the storage period (day 10) of the Quail. Use of antimicrobial interventions after slaughter can improve the shelf life of quail.