|SHAH, DEVANDRA - WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY|
|BOARD, MELISSA - WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY|
|CRESPO, ROCIA - WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY|
|PAUL, NARAYANH - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY|
|FAUX, CYNTHIA - WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY|
Submitted to: Zoonoses and Public Health
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/15/2020
Publication Date: 7/25/2020
Citation: Shah, D., Board, M., Crespo, R., Guard, J.Y., Paul, N., Faux, C. 2020. The occurrence of Salmonella, ESBL producing E. coli and carbapenem resistant non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria in a backyard poultry flock environment. Zoonoses and Public Health. 2020:00:1-2.
Interpretive Summary: This study shows that several types of antibiotic resistant bacteria that are known to cause human infections are widespread in backyard poultry in Washington state. Knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of antibiotic bacteria in backyard flocks will aid in monitoring and identifying the risks of transmission to people in proximity.
Technical Abstract: Summary: Purpose: Increased number of small-scale backyard poultry flocks raised in the United States has substantially increased human-to-live poultry contact, leading to increased public health risks associated with the transmission of zoonotic and food-borne multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The objective of the present study was to detect the occurrence of Salmonella and other multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria in the backyard poultry flock environment in the Washington State. Methods: A total of 34 backyard poultry flocks in WA State were sampled. From each flock, 1 composite coop sample and 3 drag swabs from nest floor, waterer-feeder, and a random site with visible fecal smearing, respectively, were collected. The samples were processed for isolation of Salmonella and for any other potentially MDR Gram-negative bacteria under ceftiofur selection pressure. Each isolate was identified to species level using MALDI-TOFF and tested for resistance against a panel of 16 antibiotics belonging to 8 antibiotic classes. Results: Salmonella serovar 1,4,,12:i:- was isolated from 1 (3%) flock. A total of 133 ceftiofur resistant Gram-negative bacteria including E. coli (53), Acinetobacter spp. (45), Pseudomonas spp. (22), Achromobacter spp. (8), Bordetella trematum (1), Hafnia alvei (1), Ochrobactrum intermedium (1), Raoultella ornithinolytica (1), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (1) were isolated. A total of 113 (85%) isolates displayed resistance to =3 antibiotic classes, thus identified as MDR. Conclusions: This study shows that several species of MDR Gram-negative bacteria that are also known to cause opportunistic human infections are widespread in the backyard poultry flock environment in WA State. Knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of such MDR opportunistic bacterial pathogens in backyard poultry flocks will aid in monitoring and identifying any potential risks of transmission to people in proximity.