|PARK, MIN-GOO - Animal And Plant Quarantine Agency|
|PARK, CHUNG-GYOO - Gyeongsang National University|
|YANG, JEONG-OH - Animal And Plant Quarantine Agency|
|KIM, GIL-HAH - Chungbuk National University College Of Medicine|
|REN, YONGLIN - Murdoch University|
|LEE, BYUNG-HO - Gyeongsang National University|
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/6/2020
Publication Date: 5/6/2020
Citation: Park, M., Park, C., Yang, J., Kim, G., Ren, Y., Lee, B., Cha, D.H. 2020. Ethyl formate as a methyl bromide alternative for phytosanitary disinfestation of imported banana in Korea with logistical considerations. Journal of Economic Entomology. 113(4):1711-1717. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa088.
Interpretive Summary: Industry commitment for the shift from methyl bromide (MB) to new alternatives will depend not only on the efficacy of alternatives but also on their compatibility and integrability into existing operations. International team of researchers at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Hilo, HI; Gyeongsang National University, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, and Chungbuk National University in South Korea; and Murdoch University in Australia are developing MB-alternative fumigation treatments for imported banana in South Korea. Although MB was as effective as ethyl formate in controlling a representative mealybug species on banana, ethyl formate concentration around banana was reduced by the current use of bagging, cushioning material, and sorption to banana. These reductions in ethyl formate concentration were related to incomplete control of mealybugs, suggesting that further consideration and optimization of other industry logistics such as packaging and loading ratio is necessary to enhance the adoption of this MB alternative.
Technical Abstract: Methyl bromide (MB) use for quarantine and phytosanitary purposes is being phased out. Several effective MB alternatives have been identified depending on the target system. Industry commitment for the shift to new technologies will depend not only on the efficacy of alternatives but also on their compatibility and integrability into existing operations. We compared the efficacy of MB and ethyl formate (EF) for disinfestation of Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a representative surface pest on banana and evaluated whether EF fumigation is compatible with the current packaging materials and loading ratio used by the South Korean banana import industry. Fumigation trials with P. citri adults and eggs showed that EF was at least as effective as MB at the EF and MB concentrations recommended under the current phytosanitary disinfestation guidelines. From a logistical standpoint, EF gas could not effectively penetrate plastic bagging typically used in banana cartons during commercial shipping. Also, fillers used as cushioning inside the bagging and EF sorption in banana further lowered realized EF concentrations around bananas. These reductions in EF concentration translated into reduced mortality of P. citri eggs, indicating that despite similar efficacy of MB and EF for controlling P. citri, further consideration and optimization of other industry logistics such as packaging and loading ratio is necessary to enhance the adoption of this MB alternative.