|IBRAHIM, AYA - University Of Udine|
|NIXON, LAURA - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)|
|ANFORA, GIANFRANCO - Fondazione Edmund Mach|
Submitted to: Journal of Applied Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/17/2020
Publication Date: 5/6/2020
Citation: Ibrahim, A., Kirkpatrick, D.M., Nixon, L., Ludwick, D.C., Anfora, G., Leskey, T.C. 2020. Effect of deltamethrin-incorporated nets on mobility and survivorship of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) adults and nymphs in the laboratory. Journal of Applied Entomology. https://doi.org/10.1111/jen.12764.
Interpretive Summary: The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is an invasive pest in North America and Europe that has caused significant agricultural problems in specialty and row crops. To combat this invasive stink bug pest, growers apply repeated applications of broad-spectrum insecticides that will reduce agricultural injury but lead to problems from secondary pests and increase production costs. A potential replacement for these insecticide applications are long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) which can be used as a killing agent for BMSB, particularly in attract-and-kill systems. Here, we evaluated the effect of LLIN exposure on adults and nymphs in terms of survivorship and mobility during short duration exposures ranging from 1.25 and 7.25 minutes. We found that about ~75% of adults and nymphs succumbed to exposure regardless of duration. Additionally, vertical mobility of adults and nymphs were significantly affected, whereas, horizontal mobility was less so for nymphs. Adult flight activity also was not significantly affected. Thus, using stimuli such as the BMSB aggregation pheromone to increase BMSB attraction and retention beyond exposure times evaluated here likely can improve overall impact of LLIN exposure on BMSB mobility and reduce overall survivorship.
Technical Abstract: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive pest that attacks more than 170 host plant species in North America and Europe, including many economically important specialty and row crops. Toward that end, there has been a concerted effort to reduce frequent broad-spectrum insecticide applications made on vulnerable crops. One tool that has emerged recently is the use of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) as a killing agent. Here, we conducted bioassays to evaluate the effect of direct contact on deltamethrin-impregnated LLINs on the behaviour and survivorship of H. halys nymphs and adults in the laboratory. Following exposure at three different durations (1.25, 4.25 or 7.25 min), vertical and horizontal mobility of adults and nymphs, and the flight capacity of adults were recorded and compared with individuals that were not exposed (control). Exposure to LLINs reduced the horizontal mobility (distance and velocity) and increased the angular velocity of H. halys adults, whereas, no significant differences were observed for nymphs. Contact with the LLINs also reduced vertical mobility of H. halys adults and nymphs. Flight distances by H. halys were not significantly affected at 22 hours post exposure to LLINs. Mortality of adults and nymphs at 7-d post exposure ranged from 73-77% regardless of exposure time. We discuss our findings within the context of the potential for and limitations of deploying LLINs in vulnerable crops to manage H. halys populations.