Location: Soil, Water & Air Resources ResearchTitle: Swine manure dilution with lagoon effluent impact on odor reduction and manure digestion
|HWANG, OKHWA - Rural Development Administration - Korea|
|ANDERSEN, DANIEL - Iowa State University|
Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Quality
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/17/2020
Publication Date: 1/7/2021
Citation: Hwang, O., Scoggin, K.D., Andersen, D., Ro, K.S., Trabue, S.L. 2021. Swine manure dilution with lagoon effluent impact on odor reduction and manure digestion. Journal of Environmental Quality. 50(2):336-349. https://doi.org/10.1002/jeq2.20197.
Interpretive Summary: Manure management systems have a major impact on odor from swine operations. A study was conducted to compare deep-pit manure management systems to flushing barn manure management systems. Total solids in manure were correlated to both odorants in manure and odor produced from manure. Reducing solids by 90% reduced odor by close to 90%. Methane production in manure increased sharply peaking at 3.8% total solids. Information in this report will be of value for growers, engineers, and scientists as they design manure management systems for lowering odor and increasing methane production.
Technical Abstract: Manure management systems have a major impact on odor from swine operations. A study was conducted to compare deep-pit manure management systems to flushing barn manure management systems for odor reduction and organic matter degradation. Bioreactors were used to mimic currently practicing manure management systems in which manure effluent were loaded initially, and subsequent manure added daily at 5% of its storage capacity (1 L). Final manure to lagoon ratios when the accumulated total manure volume reached its storage capacity were 10:0 (control, no dilution representing deep-pit manure management system in Midwest), 7:3 (Korean flushing systems), 5:5 (enhanced flushing systems, EFS), and 2:8 (EFS). At the end of the trial, manure and gas concentrations of odorants were measured along with manure total solids (TS), total nitrogen (TN), and total carbon (TC). Headspace odor was evaluated using the odor activity values (OAV). Solids in the manure were positively correlated to TN, TC, straight chain fatty acids (SCFA), branch chain fatty acids (BCFA), total phenols, and total indoles and positively correlated to OAV for SCFA, BCFA, ammonia, total phenols, and total indoles. Reducing TS by 90% reduced protein odorants in air by equal amounts. In general, diluting manure increased organic C degradation rates with an overall average rate of degradation of 5% of TC added daily. Carbon dioxide was the main C source evolved averaging over 90% TC evolved. Methane production increased quadratically with dilution peaking at 3.8% TC added daily.