Location: Sugarbeet and Bean ResearchTitle: Genetic studies on the inheritance of storage-induced cooking time in cowpeas [Vigna unguilata (L.) Walp]
|ADDY, SYLVESTER - Crop Research Institute - Ghana|
|DAPAAH, HANS - Crop Research Institute - Ghana|
|ASANTE, ISAAC - University Of Ghana|
|AFUTU, EMMANUEL - University Of Cape Coast|
|OFFEI, SAMUEL - University Of Ghana|
Submitted to: Frontiers in Plant Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/25/2020
Publication Date: 5/5/2020
Citation: Addy, S., Cichy, K.A., Dapaah, H., Asante, I., Afutu, E., Offei, S. 2020. Genetic studies on the inheritance of storage-induced cooking time in cowpeas [Vigna unguilata (L.) Walp]. Frontiers in Plant Science. 11:444. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00444.
Interpretive Summary: Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] is an edible legume belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is native to Africa and is widely cultivated and consumed in many tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and in Southern United States. One of the major limitations to the increased consumption of cowpeas is their longer cooking times. Long-cooking of cowpeas is therefore a disincentive to their cultivation and consumption. Long periods of cooking cowpeas lead to loss of nutrients, loss of useful time and increased greenhouse gas emission through increased burning of firewood. Fast-cooking cowpeas will help deliver highly nutritious food to the hungry within shorter periods, encourage less use of firewood, improve gender equity, increase the consumption of cowpeas, trigger an increase in demand for cowpeas and thus incentivize cowpea production by smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic studies on storage-induced cooking time trait in cowpea have rarely been reported previously. This study showed that fast-cooking time was dominant over long-cooking time. High broad and narrow sense heritabilities with moderate genetic advances indicated the additive nature of inheritance. However, due to significant epistatic gene effects observed, selection for fast-cooking time trait at advanced generations would be the effective breeding decision to consider. This is so especially when cooking time evaluation is time consuming and somewhat laborious. Finally, since evaluation of cooking time in cowpea is expensive and time consuming, we recommend that additional studies be carried out to identify molecular markers for the fast cooking trait as a means for indirect selection. The development of fast-cooking cowpea varieties acceptable to consumers have the potential to increase their per capita consumption and help reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses through prolonged burning of fuel during cooking.
Technical Abstract: Cowpeas provide food and income for many small-holder farmers in Africa. Cowpea grains contain substantial quantities of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and fiber. In areas where subsistence farming is practiced, cowpea's protein is cheaper than that obtained from other sources such as fish, meat, poultry or dairy products and combines well with cereal grains in diets. However, long-cooking times, typical of many grain legumes, is a major limitation to the utilization of cowpeas especially among the low-income and growing middle-income population of Africa. Long periods of cooking cowpeas lead to loss of nutrients, loss of useful time and increased greenhouse gas emission through increased burning of firewood. Fast-cooking cowpeas has the potential to deliver highly nutritious food to the hungry within shorter periods, encourage less use of firewood, improve gender equity, increase the consumption of cowpeas, trigger an increase in demand for cowpeas and thus incentivize cowpea production by smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, the inheritance of storage-induced cooking time in cowpeas was investigated. Two sets of bi-parental crosses were conducted involving three cowpea genotypes: CRI-11(1)-1, C9P(B) and TVu7687. Generation means from six generations were used to determine the phenotypic and genotypic variances and coefficients of variation. Broad and narrow sense heritabilities and genetic advance percentage of mean were estimated. Generation mean analysis showed that additive, dominant, additive-additive, additive-dominant and dominant-dominant gene actions were significant (p<0.001). Fast-cooking trait was dominant over the long-cooking trait. Broad sense heritability for crosses C9P(B) x CRI-11(1)-1 and TVu7687 x CRI-11(1)-1 were 0.94 and 0.99 respectively while narrow sense heritabilities were 0.84 and 0.88 respectively. Genetic advances were 27.09 and 40.40 respectively. High narrow-sense heritabilities and moderate genetic advance for the fast-cooking trait indicated the presence of additive genes in the trait and the possibility of introgressing the trait into farmer-preferred varieties using conventional selection methods. However, due to significant epistatic gene effects observed, effective selection for fast-cooking trait would be appropriate at advanced generations.