Location: Biological Control of Insects ResearchTitle: Biogenic amines biosynthetic and transduction genes in the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
|QI, YI-XIANG - Zhejiang Sci-Tech University|
|WANG, JIA-LE - Zhejiang Sci-Tech University|
|XU, GANG - Zhejiang Sci-Tech University|
|SONG, QISHENG - University Of Missouri|
|FANG, QI - Zhejiang Sci-Tech University|
|YE, GONG-YIN - Zhejiang Sci-Tech University|
Submitted to: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/19/2019
Publication Date: 10/16/2019
Citation: Qi, Y., Wang, J., Xu, G., Song, Q., Stanley, D.W., Fang, Q., Ye, G. 2019. Biogenic amines biosynthetic and transduction genes in the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 103(2):e21632. https://doi.org/10.1002/arch.21632.
Interpretive Summary: Beneficial insect species provide valuable ecological services to humans. Many beneficials, such as honey bees, bumble bees, solitary bees, hoverfiies, butterflies, moths and flower beetles (in total, more than 20,000 insect species), are responsible for pollinating nearly 900 high-value food crops. Other beneficial insects are natural enemies of pest insect species. Parasitoid insects deposit their eggs into or onto other insect species, where larvae hatch from the eggs and develop to adulthood using the resources of their host insect. Many parasitoid species provide important biological control services by killing pest insects. Some parasitoid species are commercially raised and released to control pest insects. Despite their economic importance, there is very little genetic information on the beneficials. Such information is crucial to optimizing their use and economic value. This paper is one of a series of sevem papers reporting on genomic analyses of the beneficial parasitoid, Pteromalus puparum. Here we report on genes acting in synthesis of selected signal molecules and on how these signal molecules operate. This information will be useful to scientists working to improve parasitoid-based biological control technologies and may benefits consumers generally.
Technical Abstract: Biogenic amines (BAs), such as octopamine, tyramine and dopamine, regulate various behaviors and physiological functions in insects. Here, we identified seven genes encoding BA biosynthetic enzymes and 16 genes encoding BA G protein–coupled receptor genes in the genome of the endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum. We compared the genes with their orthologues in its host Pieris rapae and the related ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. All the genes show high (>90%) identity to orthologues in N. vitripennis. P. puparum and N. vitripennis have the smallest number of BA receptor genes among the insect species we investigated. P. puparum lost one tyrosine decarboxylase gene. We speculate that BA receptors and biosynthetic enzymes may have evolved by a birth- and- death process in Insecta during adaptation to highly variable environmental conditions. We then analyzed the expression profiles of the genes, finding those acting in BA biosynthesis were more highly expressed in adult males and larvae and those encoding GPCRs are more highly expressed in adults than juveniles. Two GPCR genes were more highly expressed in salivary glands. We infer that BA signaling is a fundamental component of organismal organization, homeostasis and operation in parasitoids, some of the smallest insects.