|LEE, DONG-HUN - University Of Connecticut|
|CRIADO, MIRIA - Consultant|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2019
Publication Date: 1/21/2020
Citation: Lee, D., Criado, M., Swayne, D.E. 2020. Pathobiological origins and evolutionary history of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. In: Neumann, G., Kawaoka, Y., editors. Perspective In Medicine. Woodbury, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 10(6):a038679. https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a038679.
Technical Abstract: High pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have mostly arisen from low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses via changes in the hemagglutinin proteolytic cleavage site which include mutation of multiple non-basic to basic amino acids, duplication of basic amino acids or recombination with insertion of cellular or viral amino acids. Between 1959-2019, a total of 42 natural, independent H5 (n=15) and H7 (n=27) LPAI to HPAI virus conversion events have occurred in Europe (n = 16), North America (n = 9), Oceania (n = 7), Asia (n = 5), Africa (n = 4), and South America (n = 1). Thirty-eight of these HPAI outbreaks were limited in number of poultry premised affected and were eradicated. However, poultry outbreaks caused by A/goose/Guangdong/1996(H5Nx), Mexican H7N3, and Chinese H7N9 HPAI lineages have continued. Active surveillance and molecular detection and characterization efforts will provide the best opportunity for early detection and eradication from domestic birds.