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Research Project: Exploiting Genetic Diversity through Genomics, Plant Physiology, and Plant Breeding to Increase Competitiveness of U.S. Soybeans in Global Markets

Location: Soybean and Nitrogen Fixation Research

Title: Registration of USDA-N6004 Soybean Germplasm Derived from Japanese Cultivar Blue Side

item Bagherzadi, Laleh
item Gillen, Anne
item McNeece, Brandon
item Mian, Rouf
item Carter Jr, Thomas

Submitted to: Journal of Plant Registrations
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/18/2019
Publication Date: 9/25/2020
Citation: Bagherzadi, L., Gillen, A.M., Mcneece, B.T., Mian, R.M., and Carter Jr, T.E. 2020. Registration of USDA-N6004 Soybean Germplasm Derived from Japanese Cultivar Blue Side. Journal of Plant Registrations.

Interpretive Summary: The genetic base of many crop plants is narrow. This issue of insufficient genetic diversity in applied breeding of crop plants led USDA-ARS to establish an initiative (301 Plan) to supply new diversity to applied programs in the form of adapted breeding lines which have exotic and diverse pedigrees. The release of USDA-N6004 soybean is a part of that USDA-ARS effort. USDA-N6004 soybean is a conventional release derived from the hybridization of USDA cultivar NC-Roy and Japanese cultivar Blue Side. USDA-N6004 is the first U.S. release derived from the Japanese cultivar Blue Side. Blue Side is not a part of the historic genetic base of U.S. soybean. Japanese germplasm is not well represented in the genetic base of U.S. soybean and comprises only about 2%, based on pedigree analysis However, Japanese soybean appears to be a rich source of genes for U.S. breeding in that Japanese accessions exhibit substantial genetic variation among themselves and show a marked distinctness from U.S. cultivars. The high degree of exotic pedigree (50%) in USDA-N6004 coupled with its desirable agronomic performance suggest that it is likely to be useful in applied soybean breeding in the USA.

Technical Abstract: USDA-N6004is a new conventional, late maturity group (MG) VI soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm developed to increase the diversity of the genetic base of applied soybean breeding in North America. This germplasm was released by USDA-ARS and the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service in September 2019. USDA-N6004 traces 50% of its pedigree to the large-seeded Japanese cultivar Blue Side (PI 632950), and is the first U.S. release derived from this exotic accession. Blue Side is not a part of the historic genetic base of U.S. soybean. USDA-N6004 has a yield potential and maturity similar to that of its adapted parent, USDA cultivar NC-Roy (PI 617045). Over 35 test environments of the USDA Uniform Soybean Tests-Southern States (Uniform Tests), USDA-N6004 yielded approximately 99% of NC-Roy, matured on the same day, exhibited a 100-seed weight 3.9 g greater and a mature plant height approximately 7 cm shorter than NC-Roy. Over 23 environments of the United Soybean Board Southern Diversity Yield Trials, USDA-N6004 yielded 97% of NC-Roy and 91% of the elite cultivar NC-Dilday. Seed protein content and estimated meal protein content of the release were lower and seed oil content was higher than the adapted parent in the Uniform Tests. However, meal protein percent was above the industry minimum standard of 48%. Thus, this germplasm release should prove valuable as parental stock in applied breeding.