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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Fayetteville, Arkansas » Poultry Production and Product Safety Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #368370

Research Project: Quantifying Air and Water Quality Benefits of Improved Poultry Manure Management Practices

Location: Poultry Production and Product Safety Research

Title: Effect of Bacillus-DFM on leaky gut, serum peptide YY concentration, bone mineralization, and ammonia excretion in neonatal turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet

Author
item TELLEZ, GUILLERMO - University Of Arkansas
item ARREGUIN-NAVA, MARGARITA - Universidad Nacional Autonoma De Mexico
item MAGUEY, JESUS - Universidad Nacional Autonoma De Mexico
item MICHEL, MATIAS - National University Of The Northeast Argentina
item LATORRE, JUAN - Faculty Of Veterinary Medicine And Zootechnics
item HERNANDEZ-VELASCO, X - Faculty Of Veterinary Medicine And Zootechnics
item Moore, Philip
item HARGIS, BILLY - University Of Arkansas

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/13/2020
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Rye has high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), which are associated with poor performance when in poultry diets. Because poultry has little or no intrinsic enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, such enzymes (carbohydrases) are added to the feed. Previously, we showed that the inclusion of a selected Bacillus direct-fed microbial (DFM) that produces exogenous enzymes in high NSP diets was associated with a significant reduction in gut content viscosity and C. perfringens proliferation, improved performance and intestinal integrity when compared with high NSP control non-treated diets. In the present study, rye-based turkey starter diets with or without Bacillus-DFM were administered to day-of-hatch poults in two trials to evaluate the effect of this DFM on leaky gut, peptide YY, bone mineralization, and ammonia excretion. In each trial, day-of-hatch female turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CON) or a TRT treated diet (n = 25 birds/group). At ten days-of-age, poults in both groups were given an appropriate dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d) by oral gavage. Blood was collected to evaluate serum FITC-d and peptide YY concentrations. Also, in Trial 2, both tibias were removed for assessment of bone parameters, and turkey manure was collected to evaluate physicochemical analysis. In both trials, poults treated with the DFM showed a significant increase in body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) as compared with Control nontreated poults. However, treated poults had a significant reduction in serum levels of PPY and FITC-d when compared with Control non-treated poults. Turkeys treated with the DFM had a significant increase in tibia strength, tibia diameter, total ash, calcium, and phosphorus than Control non-treated turkeys. Furthermore, poults fed with a rye-based diet without DFM showed higher ammonia concentrations in the manure. In summary, the results of the present study confirm that turkeys fed with rye showed a significant increase in digesta viscosity that has been associated with low performance, increased enteric bacterial translocation to liver, and decreased bone strength. However, these adverse effects can be alleviated with the administration of the Bacillus-DFM. Further studies to evaluate the microbiome diversity changes in poultry receiving this Bacillus-DFM are currently being evaluated.

Technical Abstract: Rye has elevated concentrations of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), which are associated with adverse health and performance issues in poultry. Because poultry has little or no intrinsic enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, exogenous carbohydrases as feed additives are used. Previously, we have shown that the inclusion of a selected Bacillus direct-fed microbial (DFM) that produces exogenous enzymes in high NSP diets is associated with a significant reduction in both gut content viscosity and C. perfringens proliferation, improved performance and intestinal integrity when compared with high NSP control non-treated diets. In the present study, rye-based turkey starter diets with or without Bacillus-DFM were administered ad libitum to day-of-hatch poults in two independent trials to evaluate the effect of this DFM on leaky gut, peptide YY, bone mineralization, and ammonia excretion. In each trial, day-of-hatch female turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CON) or a TRT treated diet (n = 25 birds/group). At ten days-of-age, poults in both groups were given an appropriate dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d) by oral gavage. One hour later, all poults were euthanized. Blood was collected to evaluate serum FITC-d and peptide YY concentrations. Also, in Trial 2, both tibias were removed for assessment of bone parameters, and turkey manure was collected to evaluate physicochemical analysis. In both trials, poults treated with the DFM showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) as compared with Control nontreated poults. However, treated poults had a significant reduction in serum levels of PPY and FITC-d when compared with Control non-treated poults. Turkeys treated with the DFM had a significant increase in tibia strength, tibia diameter, total ash, calcium, and phosphorus than Control non-treated turkeys. Furthermore, poults fed with a rye-based diet without DFM showed higher ammonia concentrations in the manure. In summary, the results of the present study confirm that turkeys fed with rye showed a significant increase in digesta viscosity that has been associated with low performance, increased enteric bacterial translocation to liver, and decreased bone strength. However, these adverse effects can be alleviated with the administration of the Bacillus-DFM. Further studies to evaluate the metabolomics and microbiome diversity changes in poultry receiving this Bacillus-DFM are currently being evaluated.