|ORTIZ, CARLOS - West Virginia State University|
|GARCIA, YADIRA - West Virginia State University|
|NATARAJAN, PURSUSHOTHAMAN - West Virginia State University|
|BHANDARI, MENUKA - West Virginia State University|
|ABBURI, VENKATA - West Virginia State University|
|DUTTA, SUDIP KUMAR - West Virginia State University|
|YADAV, LAV - West Virginia State University|
|NIMMAKAYALA, PADMA - West Virginia State University|
|REDDY, UMESH - West Virginia State University|
Submitted to: Scientific Reports
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/20/2020
Publication Date: 3/4/2020
Citation: Ortiz, C.L., Garcia, Y.P., Natarajan, P., Bhandari, M., Abburi, V., Dutta, S., Yadav, L., Stommel, J.R., Nimmakayala, P., Reddy, U. 2020. The ankyrin repeat gene family in Capsicum spp: Genome-wide survey, characterization and gene expression profile. Scientific Reports. Sci Rep 10, 4044 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61057-4.
Interpretive Summary: Capsaicin compounds in pepper fruit are responsible for the hot spicy flavor of hot peppers. The inheritance of several genes has been described that determine whether pepper fruit will produce capsaicin. However, these genes do not account for the vast variation present for concentration of these compounds and their individual properties. We evaluated genes in pepper that are responsible for production of what are called ankyrin proteins, a group of proteins considered as markers of capsaicin content in pepper. Ankyrin related genes were identified and their chromosomal locations determined. These genes were active at various developmental stages in fruit placenta tissue where capsaicins are found. These research results will benefit scientists studying pepper fruit quality and be of value in further studies of the evolution and function of ankyrin genes in pepper.
Technical Abstract: The ankyrin (ANK) repeat protein family is largely distributed across plants and has been found to participate in multiple processes such as plant growth and development, hormone response, response to biotic and abiotic stresses. It is considered a major marker of capsaicin content in pepper fruits. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification and expression analysis of genes encoding ANK proteins in three Capsicum species: Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum annuum and Capsicum chinense. We identified a total of 87, 85 and 96 ANK genes in C. baccatum, C. annuum and C. chinense genomes, respectively. Next, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of the Capsicum ANK gene family including gene chromosomal localization, Cis-elements, conserved motif identification, intron/exon structural patterns and gene ontology classification as well as profile expression. Phylogenetic and domain organization analysis grouped the Capsicum ANK gene family into eight subfamilies distributed across all 12 pepper chromosomes at different densities. Analysis of the expression of ANK genes in leaf and pepper fruits suggested that the ANKs have specific expression patterns at various developmental stages in placenta tissue. Our results provide valuable information for further studies of the evolution, classification and putative functions of ANK genes in pepper.