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Research Project: Improving the Quality of Animal Hides, Reducing Environmental Impacts of Hide Production, and Developing Value-Added Products from Wool

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Title: Efficacy of Alkyltrimethylammonium Bromide for Decontaminating Salt-Cured Hides From The Red Heat Causing Moderatley Halophilic Bacteria

item HUSSAIN, SYED - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)
item Sarker, Majher
item Yosief, Hailemichael

Submitted to: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/18/2019
Publication Date: 2/11/2020
Citation: Hussain, S., Sarker, M.I., Yosief, H.O. 2020. Efficacy of alkyltrimethylammonium bromide for decontaminating salt-cured hides from the red heat causing moderatley halophilic bacteria. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 70:159-164.

Interpretive Summary: Animal hide/skin is a valuable byproduct of the meat industry which produces leather. To preserve animal hide/skin, brine is conventionally used which may contain salt-loving bacteria. Previous study revealed that, this salt-loving bacteria often creates red stain on hide/skin surface during their storage period which is called red heat. Red heat is a big concern for the leather industry as it is permanent and degrades the quality of leather which eventually incurs substantial economic loss. Therefore, the current study was carried out to investigate the effects of different concentrations of specific antimicrobial agent (i.e., Alkyltrimethylammonium Bromide) on selected salt-loving bacteria attributed to the deterioration of hide quality. The result shows a significant reduction of salt-loving bacterial population in brine can be achieved using a low concentration of the selected antimicrobial. From this study it is concluded that, alkyltrimethylammonium Bromide could potentially be used at the industrial scale for salt-curing processes of hides for the eventual removal of salt-loving bacteria that causes red heat on preserved hides.

Technical Abstract: Conventionally, animal hide and skin necessitates 95% saturated brine solution (SBS) or ~50% salt (w/w) on raw hide weight for its preservation. This salt is primarily derived from different sources including solar-saltern, evaporation ponds, etc., which are laden with different types of halophilic microorganisms. Previous studies confirmed that the presence of moderately halophilic bacteria caused red heat on cured hide, which adversely affects the leather quality and causes substantial economic losses for leather industries. Thus, this investigation was carried out to examine the effects of different concentrations of alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (ATMB) on selected halophilic-bacteria attributed to the deterioration of hide quality. In nutrient agar (NBS), ATMB at 250 and 500 ppm reduced individual halo-bacteria, i.e., Halomonas-halodenitrificans, halomonas-eurihalina, Alkalibacillus-haloalkaliphilus, and Salimicrobium-album, by averages of 0.64 and 1.90, 1.5 and 2.61, 0.90 and 2.27, 1.65 and 3.36 log CFU/mL, respectively, in 5 min. ATMB treatment in SBS at 500 ppm for 18 h resulted in a reduction of H. halodenitrificans, H. eurihalina, A. haloalkaliphilus, and S. album by averages of 1.9, 1.25, 0.96, and 1.34 log CFU/mL, respectively, when compared with the controls. Likewise, 5,000 ppm ATMB reduced the cocktail population nearly to zero from that cultivated in SBS for 18 h.