Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality ResearchTitle: Strategies to improve whole wheat bread quality
Submitted to: Cereal Foods World
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/3/2019
Publication Date: 10/31/2019
Citation: Baik, B.V. 2019. Strategies to improve whole wheat bread quality. Cereal Foods World. 64(6). https://doi.org/10.1094/CFW-64-6-0069.
Interpretive Summary: Public interest in the consumption of whole grain foods to obtain the associated health benefits has significantly grown during the last few decades. The magnitude of the increase in whole grain consumption is still small, and is even lower in children than adults, suggesting that greater efforts are still needed to further improve the consumption of whole grain foods. Inferior product quality in the appearance, taste and texture of whole grain foods (when compared to refined grain foods) is believed to be largely responsible for the decreased preference of the former. Since bread is the main food source of whole grain for children and adults, increasing the quality and sensory acceptance of whole wheat bread would be an effective approach to boost the overall intake of whole grain. We have a limited understanding of the required grain characteristics and the specifically designed baking processes necessary for making improved quality whole wheat bread, which are presumed to be different from those for refined flour. It is expected that improvement of whole wheat bread quality can be attained by: 1) identification of wheat grain carrying bran that is less detrimental to processing and product quality; and 2) blending refined flour possessing excellent bread baking potential and bran giving minimal negative effects on bread quality. This article describes favorable characteristics and effective pre-treatment methods of bran, along with appropriate timing of the incorporation of bran into dough, providing millers and bakers with helpful information and practical suggestions for the production of whole wheat bread with improved quality.
Technical Abstract: The enhancement of product quality and sensory acceptance can bring about a meaningful and sizable boost in the overall consumption of whole wheat foods. The identification of bran characteristics that are less detrimental to processing and product quality, the appropriate reduction of bran particle size, the pre-treatments of bran for improved functional properties and the delayed incorporation of bran with full gluten development of dough are considered to be effective strategies for improving the quality of whole wheat bread. This article describes favorable characteristics and effective pre-treatment methods of bran, along with appropriate timing of the incorporation of bran into dough, for the production of whole wheat bread with improved quality.