Location: Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research CntrTitle: Toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) products: impact of water quality, product composition and fish species
|LIU, DIBO - Leibniz Institute Of Freshwater Ecology And Inland Fisheries|
|MEINELT, THOMAS - Leibniz Institute Of Freshwater Ecology And Inland Fisheries|
|Straus, David - Dave|
|BARTSCHAT, PETRA - State Agency For The Environment|
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/20/2019
Publication Date: 10/7/2019
Citation: Liu, D., Meinelt, T., Straus, D.L., Bartschat, P. 2019. Toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) products: impact of water quality, product composition and fish species [abstract]. Aquaculture Europe 2019, Berlin, Germany, October 7 - 10, 2019. p. 801-802.
Technical Abstract: Background Prophylaxis with peracetic acid (PAA) in aquaculture is a promising sustainable alternative. However, successful prophylaxis needs to consider composition of PAA products (ratio of PAA to hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]), fish production conditions (water parameters, culture system and management), cultured species and development stage of the fish. These parameters simultaneously determine an appropriate PAA product and PAA concentration to avoid harming the fish and to ensure prophylaxis success. The presentation will summarize three of our early-stage studies to address: 1) how water parameters affect the degradation of PAA, 2) how composition of PAA products affects their toxicity to aquatic animals and 3) how fish species differ in their sensitivity to PAA. Results In study 1 we investigated the impacts of salinity, water hardness and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the -degradation of 1 mg/L of three commercial Wofasteril® PAA products: E400, E250 and Lspez. The results showed that salinity and DOC stimulated PAA degradation, while water hardness had only minor impact. In study 2 we performed 24-h toxicity tests using Daphnia magna with the aforementioned PAA formulations. Toxicity to Daphnia was greatest for Lspez (high H2O2/PAA ratio), intermediate for E250 (intermediate H2O2/PAA ratio), and lowest for E400 (low H2O2/PAA ratio) (Figure 1). An E400 + H2O2 mixture, which possessed a composition theoretically identical to the E250 formulation, had toxic effects and 24-h LC50 values similar to those of the E250 product. The results indicate that the toxicity of PAA formulations to Daphnia is due to the combined effect of both PAA and H2O2. In study 3 twelve species of fingerling fish that are important to aquaculture were exposed to PAA for 24-h static toxicity bioassays. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were estimated. The mean 24-h LC50 values were species dependent and ranged from 2.8 to 9.3 mg/L PAA. More importantly, the 24-h no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) ranged from 1.9 to 5.8 mg/L PAA. PAA was more toxic in water with lower alkalinity and hardness, while a small increase of dissolved organic content had no effect on PAA toxicity. Conclusion Our early studies confirmed the complex influences of several biotic and abiotic factors on the toxicity of PAA. For this reason, strategies for successful prophylaxis with PAA in aquaculture facilities should be customized according to the onsite situation. In future studies we aim to quantify the impacts of these factors with a mathematic model and establish an easy-to-use tool for the customized use of PAA for prophylaxis in aquaculture systems. Related publications Liu, D., Steinberg, C.E.W., Straus, D.L., Pedersen, L.-F., Meinelt, T., 2014. Salinity, dissolved organic carbon and water hardness affect peracetic acid (PAA) degradation in aqueous solutions. Aquacultural Engineering 60: 35-40. Liu, D., Straus, D.L., Pedersen, L.-F., Meinelt, T., 2015. Comparison of the toxicity of Wofasteril peracetic acid formulations E400, E250, and Lspez to Daphnia magna, with emphasis on the effect of hydrogen peroxide. North American Journal of Aquaculture 77: 128-135. Straus, D. L., Meinelt, T., Liu, D. and Pedersen, L.-F., 2018. Toxicity of peracetic acid to fish: variation among species and impact of water chemistry. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 49: 715-724.