Location: Plant, Soil and Nutrition ResearchTitle: Iron fortification and bioavailability of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds and flour
|JAHAN, TAMANNA - University Of Saskatchewan|
|VANDENBERG, ALBERT - University Of Saskatchewan|
|TYLER, ROBERT - University Of Saskatchewan|
|REANEY, MARTIN - University Of Saskatchewan|
|TAR'AN, BUNYAMIN - University Of Saskatchewan|
Submitted to: Nutrients
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/12/2019
Publication Date: 9/18/2019
Citation: Jahan, T., Vandenberg, A., Glahn, R.P., Tyler, R.T., Reaney, M.J., Tar'An, B. 2019. Iron fortification and bioavailability of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds and flour. Nutrients. 11(9):2240. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092240.
Interpretive Summary: Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders, and is mainly due to insufficient intake of absorbable (bioavailable) Fe; thus, there are numerous efforts to improve any aspect of the diet to alleviate this deficiency. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) was examined as a potential food that can be fortified with Fe fortification. Fortified Fe was applied by a spraying and drying method. Consumers found the chickpea foods highly acceptable. The nutritional evaluation of the foods demonstrated that the fortified chickpea products would provide a significant proportion of the recommended daily Fe requirement.
Technical Abstract: Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders, and is mainly due to insufficient intake of bioavaiable Fe. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) was examined as a potential vehicle for Fe fortification. Fortificants [FeSO4·7H2O (ferrous sulfate hepta-hydrate), FeSO4·H2O (ferrous sulfate mono-hydrate) and NaFeEDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron (iii) sodium salt)] were applied by a spraying and drying method. At 2000 ppm iron fortificant, the fortified split desi seed (dal), desi flour and kabuli flour supplied 18-19 mg, 16-20 mg and 11-19 mg per 100g of Fe. The overall consumer acceptability using a nine-point hedonic scale for sensory evaluation demonstrated that NaFeEDTA-fortified cooked chickpea (soup and chapatti) scored the highest among the three fortificants. Lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of Fe-fortified products changed over time. However, no organoleptic changes occurred. Based on in vitro assessment, Fe bioavailability was increased by 5.8-10.5, 15.3-25.0 and 4.8-9.0 ng ferritin mg-1 protein for cooked split desi seed (soup), desi chapatti and kabuli chapatti, respectively, when prepared with Fe-fortified chickpea. The increase in Fe concentration and bioavailability in fortified chickpea products demonstrated that these products could provide a significant proportion of the recommended daily Fe requirement.