|AHMAD, SHAFQAT - Uppsala University|
|FATIMA, SYEDA - Aga Khan University|
|RUKH, GULL - Uppsala University|
|SMITH, CAREN - Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center On Aging At Tufts University|
Submitted to: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/20/2019
Publication Date: 4/9/2019
Citation: Ahmad, S., Fatima, S.S., Rukh, G., Smith, C.E. 2019. Gene lifestyle interactions with relation to obesity, cardiometabolic, and cardiovascular traits among South Asians. Frontiers in Endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00221.
Technical Abstract: The rapid rise of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) during the last few decades among South Asians has been largely attributed to a major shift in lifestyles including physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary patterns, and an overall pattern of sedentary lifestyle. Genetic predisposition to these cardiometabolic risk factors may have interacted with these obesogenic environments in determining the higher cardiometabolic disease prevalence. Based on the premise that gene-environment interactions cause obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, we systematically searched the literature and considered the knowledge gaps that future studies might fulfill. We identified only seven published studies that focused specifically on gene-environment interactions for cardiometabolic traits in South Asians, most of which were limited by relatively small sample and lack of replication. Some studies reported that the differences in metabolic response to higher physical activity and low caloric diet might be modified by genetic risk related to these cardiometabolic traits. Although studies on gene lifestyle interactions in cardiometabolic traits report significant interactions, future studies must focus on more precise assessment of lifestyle factors, investigation of a larger set of genetic variants and the application of powerful statistical methods to facilitate translatable approaches. Future studies should also be integrated with findings both using mechanistic studies through laboratory settings and randomized clinical trials for clinical outcomes.