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Research Project: Biology, Ecology, and Genomics of Pathogenic and Beneficial Microorganisms of Wheat, Barley, and Biofuel Brassicas

Location: Wheat Health, Genetics, and Quality Research

Title: Identity and pathogenicity of fungi associated with crown and root rot of dryland winter wheat in Azerbaijan

Author
item OZER, GOKSEL - Abanat Izzet Baysal University
item ALKAN, MEHTAP - Abanat Izzet Baysal University
item IMREN, MUSTAFA - Abanat Izzet Baysal University
item MUMINJANOV, HAFIZ - Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations (FAO)
item Paulitz, Timothy
item DABABAT, ABDELFATTAH - International Maize & Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)

Submitted to: Plant Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/24/2020
Publication Date: 5/20/2020
Citation: Ozer, G., Alkan, M., Imren, M., Muminjanov, H., Paulitz, T.C., Dababat, A.A. 2020. Identity and pathogenicity of fungi associated with crown and root rot of dryland winter wheat in Azerbaijan. Plant Disease. 104(4):2149-2157. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-19-1799-RE.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-19-1799-RE

Interpretive Summary: A survey of crown and root rot of wheat was conducted in Azerbaijan in 2017. 200 strains were identified by DNA sequencing. Fusarium culmorum was the most common, and there were 9 other Fusarium species identified, along with Bipolaris sorokiniana, Curvularia spicifera, Exserohilum pedicellatum, Nigrospora oryzae, and Rhizoctonia spp. F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum were the most aggressive.

Technical Abstract: A comprehensive survey was performed to assess fungal populations associated with crown and root rot of wheat throughout main wheat growing areas of Azerbaijan. Samples were taken from 76 fields; 201 fungal strains were isolated, identified, and evaluated for pathogenicity. The identification was conducted with morphological and molecular tools such as species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1- alpha (EF1-a) loci. The fungus found in the greatest number of fields (44) was Fusarium culmorum, followed by F. acuminatum. Other Fusarium spp. isolates were identified F. equiseti, F. pseudograminearum, F. graminearum, F. incarnatum, F. avenaceum, F. hostae, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, and F. brachygibbosum. Bipolaris sorokiniana, Curvularia spicifera, Exserohilum pedicellatum, Nigrospora oryzae, and Rhizoctonia spp. Isolates were also identified associated with underground parts of wheat. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and EF1-a sequences of the isolates showed that the isolates belonging to the same species were clearly separated in the dendrogram. Pathogenicity assays revealed that F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum were most aggressive; F. avenaceum, F. hostae, B. sorokiniana, C. spicifera, and R. solani isolates were moderately aggressive; C. inaequalis, E. pedicellatum, and N. oryzae were weakly aggressive; and others were non-pathogenic. The result of this study exhibited the existence of a wide range of species associated with crown and root rot of wheat in Azerbaijan. Additionally, this is the first report of F. hostae C. spicifera, C. inaequalis, and N. oryzae as pathogens on wheat in Azerbaijan.