|LIU, RUIJIE - University Of Adelaide|
|YEE LOW, WAI - University Of Adelaide|
|TEARLE, RICK - University Of Adelaide|
|KOREN, SERGEY - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)|
|GHURYE, JAY - University Of Maryland|
|RHIE, ARANG - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)|
|PHILLIPPY, ADAM - National Institutes Of Health (NIH)|
|Smith, Timothy - Tim|
|HIENDLEDER, STEFAN - University Of Adelaide|
|WILLIAMS, JOHN - University Of Adelaide|
Submitted to: BMC Genomics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/2/2019
Publication Date: 12/19/2019
Citation: Liu, R., Yee Low, W., Tearle, R., Koren, S., Ghurye, J., Rhie, A., Phillippy, A.M., Rosen, B.D., Bickhart, D.M., Smith, T.P., Hiendleder, S., Williams, J.L. 2019. New insights into mammalian sex chromosome structure and evolution using high-quality sequences from bovine X and Y chromosomes. BMC Genomics. 20:1000. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-6364-z.
Interpretive Summary: Mammals typically have a single set of chromosomes that determines their biological sex. These chromosomes are very difficult to map and are very complex. Using the latest algorithms, we identify the structure of these chromosomes in cattle. This data will be useful in future genetics experiments in this species.
Technical Abstract: The evolution and function of mammalian sex chromosomes is distinct from autosomes and still poorly understood due to the limited number of species with high quality sex chromosome assemblies. We used trio-sequencing in combination with long read and optical mapping approaches to generate the first cattle sex chromosomes with clearly defined pseudoautosomal (PAR) and X degenerate (X-d) regions. The cattle PAR spans 6.84 Mb at the proximal end of the X and Y chromosomes and comprises 31 genes. The order of PAR genes closely matches that found in other mammals, including human, although the pseudoautosomal boundary differs among species in line with their divergence times. The Y chromosome has three X-d regions with 16 gametologues separated by ampliconic regions. These new high quality cattle sex chromosome assemblies allow us to compare their structure to gain new insight into sex chromosome evolution and function.