|DE SOUZA, MISAEL - Oklahoma State University|
|Armstrong, John - Scott|
|HOBACK, WYATT - Oklahoma State University|
|MULDER, PHILLIP - Oklahoma State University|
|PAUDYAL, SULOCHANA - Oklahoma State University|
|FOSTER, JOHN - Oklahoma State University|
|PAYTON, MARK - Oklahoma State University|
|AKOSA, JOSEPHINE - University Of Notre Dame|
Submitted to: Current Trends in Entomology and Zoological Studies
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/13/2019
Publication Date: 11/19/2019
Citation: De Souza, M.A., Armstrong, J.S., Hoback, W.W., Mulder, P.G., Paudyal, S., Foster, J.E., Payton, M.E., Akosa, J. 2019. Temperature dependent development of sugarcane aphids Melanaphis sacchari, (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on three different host plants with estimates of the lower and upper threshold for fecundity. Current Trends in Entomology and Zoological Studies. 2:1011.
Interpretive Summary: The life history and development of sugarcane aphids was studied on three common host plants at a range of temperatures from 5 C to 35 degrees C. No reproduction occurred at 5 and 35 C, while optimal reproduction occurred between 20 and 25 C. The lower and upper threshold for development was estimated to be 11 C for the low, and 32 C for the upper. Optimal temperature for development occurred at 22.5 C. These relationships with aphid development and reproduction as related to temperature are helpful in knowing when to search for aphids and for predicting when populations will develop.
Technical Abstract: The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) is a serious economic threat to grain sorghum across the U.S. sorghum belt. It can develop on multiple grass hosts but does not appear to survive winter temperatures in the U.S.A. with the exception of southern Texas near the Mexican border, Florida, and Louisiana. Survival and reproduction of aphid pests is dependent upon access to appropriate nutrition and temperatures at which metabolic processes are maintained. We evaluated the growth, reproduction, and survival for sugarcane aphids at a range of constant temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35°C) and on known hosts, sorghum, Johnsongrass, and Columbus grass in environmental growth chambers. Longevity, fecundity, number of female nymphs/d, reproductive period in d, and intrinsic rate of growth were measured at 24 h intervals. At temperatures below 10°C and above 30°C, reproduction did not occur on any of the host plants. Longevity was maximal at 15°C and thereafter decreased with increasing temperatures. The intrinsic rate of increase was optimal between 15°C and 25°C on all host plants, and maximum fecundity differed by host plant and was greatest on sorghum. The lower threshold for fecundity was estimated to be 11°C, while the upper threshold for fecundity was 32°C when both the Weibull and Normal models were used to estimate based on daily fecundity across the temperature ranges. The results of these experiments suggest that sugarcane aphid can use alternate hosts for survival and reproduction, but both low and high temperatures limit its reproductive capacity. Higher temperatures may trigger dispersal, while lower temperatures should limit sugarcane aphid fecundity and survival in most of the U.S.A.